HOW TO CITE: If you are using the content of this website you should cite us using the DOI 10.5281/zenodo.2165597

CORAL: A corpus of ontological requirements annotated with Lexico-Syntactic Patterns

Authors: Alba Fernández-Izquierdo, María Poveda-Villalón, Raúl García-Castro

This work is under license Licencia de Creative Commons

Abstract

Ontological requirements play a key role in ontology development as they determine the knowledge that needs to be modelled. In addition, the analysis of such requirements can be used a) to improve ontology testing by easing the automation of requirements into tests; b) to improve the requirements specification activity; or c) to ease ontology reuse by facilitating the identification of patterns. However, there is a lack of openly available ontological requirements published together with their associated ontologies, which hinders such analysis. Therefore, in this work we present CORAL (Corpus of Ontological Requirements Annotated with Lexico-syntactic patterns), an openly available corpus of 834 ontological requirements annotated (see an example of annotated requirement here) and 29 lexico-syntactic patterns, from which 12 are proposed in this work. CORAL is openly available in three different open formats, namely, HTML, CSV and RDF under "Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International" license.

Ontologies

Here are the ontologies that have been collected, their URIs and the number of requirements associated.
Ontology name Ontology URI Number of requirements
SAREF https://w3id.org/saref# 71
SAREF4BLDG https://w3id.org/def/saref4bldg# 98
SAREF4ENVI https://w3id.org/def/saref4envi# 58
OneM2M https://git.onem2m.org/MAS/BaseOntology/raw/master/base_ontology.owl# 58
ODRL https://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/ 12
VICINITY Core http://iot.linkeddata.es/def/core# 126
VICINITY WoT http://iot.linkeddata.es/def/wot# 24
VICINITY WoT mappings http://iot.linkeddata.es/def/wot-mappings# 15
BTN100 https://datos.ign.es/def/btn100# 77
OntoDT http://www.ontodm.com/OntoDT# 14
Video Game http://purl.org/net/VideoGameOntology# 66
The Software Ontology (SWO) http://theswo.sourceforge.net/ 90
Building Top Ontology (BTO) http://www.w3id.org/bot# 18
Dem@care Ontology http://www.demcare.eu/results/ontologies 107

Vocabulary for publishing the corpus as Linked Data

The vocabulary used for publishing the corpus as linked data, depicted in Figure 1, models the ontological requirements and their relations with the associated ontologies and LSPs. The proposed vocabulary can be extended with more information related to ontological requirements.

Overview of the Ontology model for ontological requirements.
Figure 1. - Overview of the vocabulary for ontological requirements.

There are four main concepts in this proposed vocabulary, i.e.,ontological requirement, ontology, lexico-syntactic pattern and lexico-syntactic pattern implementation.

An ontological requirement is associated with two main types of elements: (1) ontology, which determines the provenance of the requirement, and (2) the correspondent lexico-syntactic pattern. The ontological requirement concept also includes as properties the competency question and its answer (if exists). Each lexico-syntactic pattern, in turn, is associated with the lexico-syntactic pattern implementation. It also includes as properties the name of the LSP, the identifier, the LSPs formalization and the usage example. The lexico-syntactic pattern implementation concept has as properties the ODPs, the constructs associated to the ODPs, and the expressivity of the implementation. Finally, the ontology concept, which represents the ontology from which the requirement is extracted, has as property its associated URI.

The version of the dictionary of patterns in RDF is available in the following link. The version of the corpus of annotated requirements in RDF is available in the following link.

Dictionary of Lexico-Syntactic Patterns (LSPs)

This dictionary includes LSPs extracted from the state of the art and new LSPs. It is organized according to the possible implementation in the ontology of each of the LSPs. This categorization can be used to identify whether the lexico-syntactic patterns is polysemous:
  • 1 to 1 implementation. One lexico-syntactic pattern corresponds to one possible implementation in the ontology.
  • 1 to N implementation. One lexico-syntactic pattern can result in more than one possible implementation in the ontology.

The symbols and abbreviations used for the definitions of the lexico-syntactic patterns, proposed by NeOn project, are described below. Any additional element appearing in the competency question or sentence but not captured in the LSP is ignored, because it does not provide any information nor affect the semantics of the competency questions or sentences.

Symbols & Abbreviations Description
CATV Verbs of Classification. Set of verbs of classification plus the preposition
that normally follows them. Some of the most representative verbs in this
group are: classify in/into, categorize in/into
CD Cardinal Number
CN Class Name. Generic names for semantic roles usually accompanied by
preposition. Two main groups have been identified: CN conveying classification
(CN-CATV) (class, group, type, subtype, subclass, category,
species, family, order, example) and CN conveying mereological relations
(CN-PART) (part, set, member, constituent, component, element, piece,
item, layer). If not otherwise specified, CN can include generic names such
as period, area or phase.
NP<...> Noun Phrase. It is defined as a phrase whose head is a noun or a pronoun, optionally accompanied by a set of modifiers, and that functions as the subject or object of a verb. NP is followed by the semantic role played by the concept it represents in the conceptual relation in question in < ... >
PARA Paralinguistic symbols like colon, or more complex structures such as as
follows, etc., that introduce a list.
PREP Prepositions
QUAN Quantifiers such as all, some, most, many, several, every, etc.
REPRO Relative pronouns such as that, which, whose.
() Parentheses group two or more elements.
* Asterisk indicates repetition.
[] Elements in brackets are meant to be optional, which means that they
can be present either at that stage of the sentence or not. By default of
appearance, the semantic of the pattern remains unmodified.
NEG Negative. Elements preceded by this abbreviation should not appear in
the pattern
VB Verb. They can include the preposition that normally follows them.

SoA lexico-syntactic patterns

The following table shows the set of LSPs described in the NeOn project. Each LSP includes the identifier used in the NeOn ODP repository of the ODPs that can be used to implement it. In addition, each LSP includes the associated OWL constructs for implementing it in an ontology, as well as the corresponding DL expressivity. In case of the 1:N implementations LSPs, each row refers to a possible implementation.

ID NeOn ODP Description Formalization of the pattern Example of usage OWL constructs DL Expresivity
LSP-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to SubclassOf relation ODP [(NP<subclass>,)* and] NP<subclass> be [CN-CATV] NP<superclass> An orphan drug is a type of drug / One of the users is the manager subclassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to SubclassOf relation ODP There are QUAN CN-CATV NP<superclass> PARA [(NP<subclass>,)* and] NP<subclass> There are several kinds of memory: fast, expensive, short term memory and long-term memory subclassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to SubclassOf relation ODP [A(n) | QUAN] example of | CN-CATV NP<superclass> be |include [PARA] [(NP<subclass>,)* and] NP<subclass> Types of criteria for assessing applications are: quality, safety and efficacy subclassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to SubclassOf relation ODP NP<superclass> be | CATV [PARA] [(NP<resource1>, )* and | or ], NP<subclass> The devices can be classified into categories: FunctionRelated, EneryRelated and BuildingRelated rdfs:subClassOf Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-MI-EN LP-MI-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Multiple Inheritance ODP NP<subclass> [can]be NP<superclass> and NP<superclass> Amphibians are water-living and land-living animals subclassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-EQ-EN LP-EQ-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Equivalence relation between Classes ODP NP<class> be (also | likewise) | know as |call | (refer to as) NP<class> Poison dart frogs are also known as poison-arrow frogs. equivalentClass, Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP NP<class> VB NEG(be | have | CATV | PART) NP<class> Engineering project managers participate in writing specifications, researching, and selecting suppliers and materials Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, ObjectProperty ALE
LSP-DP-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Datatype Property ODP Property | characteristic | attribute| features of NP<class> be [PARA] [(NP<property>,)* and] NP<property> Properties of mammals are hair, sweat glands, milk, and giving live birth Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, DatatypeProperty ALE(D)
LSP-DP-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Datatype Property ODP NP<class> be [(AP<property>,)*] and AP<property> Metals are lustrous, malleable and good conductors of heat and electricity. Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, DatatypeProperty ALE(D)
LSP-Di-EN LP-Di-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Disjoint Classes ODP NP<class> differ | be different | be differentiate from NP<class> Non-opioid agents differ from opioid agents Class (Thing, Nothing), disjointWith ALC
LSP-SV-EN LP-SV-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Specified Values ODP NP<feature> can | may be [(AP<value>,)*] or AP<value> Size may be small, medium, or big Individual, Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-PA-EN CP-PA-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Participation ODP NP<object> participate| take part in| be involved in (NP<event>,)* and] NP<event> Birds build nests Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-PCP-EN CP-PCP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Co-participation ODP (NP<object>,)* and NP<object> participate | (take part) | (be involved) in [(NP<event>,)* and] NP<event> Aldo Gangemi and Valentina Presutti participate in the ISWC 2007 conference Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, someValuesOf, SymmetricProperty ALEI
LSP-PCP-EN CP-PCP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Co-participation ODP NP<object> participate| (take part)| (be involved) with in [(NP<event>,)* and] NP<event> Action Engine participates with Microsoft at 3GSM World Congress Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, someValuesOf, SymmetricProperty ALEI
LSP-LO-EN CP-LO-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to LocationODP NP<place> be| has (locate | find | set| situate | place| (a site)) in [(NP<location >,)* and] NP<location> The school is located in Bocas Town Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, someValuesOf ALE
LSP-OR-EN CP-OR-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object-Role ODP NP<object> (be used)| work| act| serve as [(NP<role >,)* and] NP<role> Gold is used as the reflective layer on some high-end CDs Class (Thing, Nothing), allValuesFrom, ObjectProperty AL
LSP-DC-SC-EN LP-DC-01 + LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Defined Classes and SubclassOf relation ODPs [A| any] NP<subclass> be [a| any] NP<superclass> PREP [(NP<class>,)* and| or NP<class A vegetarian pizza is a pizza without fish or meat Class (Thing, Nothing), subclassOf AL
LSP-DC-SC-EN LP-DC-01 + LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Defined Classes and SubclassOf relation ODPs [A| any] NP<subclass> REPRO VB [(NP<class>,)* and| or NP<class> be [a] NP<superclass> A workflow that contains at least one business task is a business plan Class (Thing, Nothing), subclassOf AL
LSP-DC-SC-EN LP-DC-01 + LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Defined Classes and SubclassOf relation ODPs [A| any] NP<subclass> PREP [(NP<class>,)* and] NP<class> be VB [a] NP<superclass> Animal with backbones are called vertebrates Class (Thing, Nothing), subclassOf AL
LSP-SC-Di-EC-EN LP-SC-01 + LP-Di-01 + LP-EC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to SubclassOf relation, Disjoint Classes, and Exhaustive Classes ODPs NP<superclass> be| CATV [either] NP<subclass> or| and NP<subclass> Animals are either vertebrates or invertebrates. Class (Thing, Nothing), subClassOf, someValuesOf ALC
LSP-SC-Di-EC-EN LP-SC-01 + LP-Di-01 + LP-EC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to SubclassOf relation, Disjoint Classes, and Exhaustive Classes ODPs There are CD CN-CATV NP<superclass> [PARA] [(NP<subclass>,)* and] NP<subclass> There are two types of narcotic analgesics: the opiates and the opioids. Class (Thing, Nothing), subClassOf, someValuesOf, disjointWith ALC
LSP-SC-Di-EC-EN LP-SC-01 + LP-Di-01 + LP-EC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to SubclassOf relation, Disjoint Classes, and Exhaustive Classes ODPs NP<superclass> CATV CD CN-CATV [PARA] [(NP<subclass>,)*and] NP <subclass> Membrane proteins are classified into two major categories, integral proteins and peripheral proteins Class (Thing, Nothing), subClassOf, someValuesOf, disjointWith ALC
LSP-SC-Di-EC-EN LP-SC-01 + LP-Di-01 + LP-EC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to SubclassOf relation, Disjoint Classes, and Exhaustive Classes ODPs NP<superclass> be divided | separate in | into CD CN-CATV [PARA] [(NP<subclass >,)* and] NP<subclass> Marine mammals are divided into three orders: Carnivora, Sirenia and Cetacea. Class (Thing, Nothing), subClassOf, someValuesOf, disjointWith ALC
LSP-OP-UR-EN LP-OP-01 + LP-UR-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property and Universal Restriction ODPs NP<class> VB NEG(be| have| CATV| PART) just | only | exclusively NP<class> Herbivore eat only plants Class (Thing, Nothing), subClassOf, allValuesFrom AL
ID NeOn ODP Description Formalization of the pattern Example of usage OWL constructs DL Expresivity
LSP-SC-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to SubclassOf ""or"" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<class> include [(NP<class >)* and] NP<class> Arthropods include insects crustaceans spiders scorpions and centipedes Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-SC-PW-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to SubclassOf ""or"" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<class> be divided | separate in | into [CN] [(NP<class >)* and] NP<class> Seed producing plants are divided into angiosperms and gymnosperms Class (Thing, Nothing), subClassOf AL
LSP-SC-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to SubclassOf ""or"" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<class> be divided | separate in | into [CN] [(NP<class >)* and] NP<class> Seed producing plants are divided into angiosperms and gymnosperms Class (Thing, Nothing), subClassOf, someValuesOf, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ""or"" Datatype Property ""or"" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<class> have NP<class> Birds have feathers Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, someValuesOf ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ""or"" Datatype Property ""or"" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<class> have NP<class> Birds have feathers Class (Thing, Nothing), DatatypeProperty, someValuesOf ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ""or"" Datatype Property ""or"" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<class> have NP<class> Birds have feathers Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, someValuesOf, inverseof ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part> PART NP<whole> Proteins form part of the cell membrane Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-CONS-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part> PART NP<whole> Proteins form part of the cell membrane Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-COM-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part> PART NP<whole> Proteins form part of the cell membrane Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-CE-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part> PART NP<whole> Proteins form part of the cell membrane Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs NP<whole> PART [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part> Most clays consist of flat particles Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-CONS-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs NP<whole> PART [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part> Most clays consist of flat particles Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-COM-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs& NP<whole> PART [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part> Most clays consist of flat particles Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-CE-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs NP<whole> PART [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part> Most clays consist of flat particles Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs CN-PART NP<whole> be [PARA] [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part> The parts of a tree are the root trunk(s), branches, twigs and leaves Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty,inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-CONS-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs CN-PART NP<whole> be [PARA] [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part> The parts of a tree are the root trunk(s), branches, twigs and leaves Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty,inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-COM-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs CN-PART NP<whole> be [PARA] [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part> The parts of a tree are the root trunk(s), branches, twigs and leaves Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty,inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-CE-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs CN-PART NP<whole> be [PARA] [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part> The parts of a tree are the root trunk(s), branches, twigs and leaves Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty,inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs NP<whole> include| (be divide in| into)| (be separate in| into)CD CN-PART [PARA] [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part The cerebrum is divided into two major parts: the right cerebral hemisphere and left cerebral hemisphere Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-CONS-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs NP<whole> include| (be divide in| into)| (be separate in| into)CD CN-PART [PARA] [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part The cerebrum is divided into two major parts: the right cerebral hemisphere and left cerebral hemisphere Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-COM-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs NP<whole> include| (be divide in| into)| (be separate in| into)CD CN-PART [PARA] [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part The cerebrum is divided into two major parts: the right cerebral hemisphere and left cerebral hemisphere Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-CE-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation ""or"" Constituency ""or"" Componency ""or"" Collection-Entity ODPs NP<whole> include| (be divide in| into)| (be separate in| into)CD CN-PART [PARA] [(NP<part>)* and] NP<part The cerebrum is divided into two major parts: the right cerebral hemisphere and left cerebral hemisphere Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI

Extended lexico-syntactic patterns

The following table shows the set of extended lexico-syntactic patterns proposed in this work. Each LSP includes the identifier used in the NeOn ODP repository of the ODPs that can be used to implement it (if exists). In addition, each LSP includes the associated OWL constructs for implementing it in an ontology, as well as the corresponding DL expressivity. In case of the 1:N implementations LSPs, each row refers to a possible implementation.

ID Name Formalization of the pattern Example of usage OWL constructs DL Expresivity
LSP-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to SubclassOf relation ODP NP<superclass> be | CATV [PARA] [(NP<resource1>, )* and | or ], NP<subclass> The devices can be classified into categories: FunctionRelated, EneryRelated and BuildingRelated rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP NP<class> VB NEG(be | have | CATV | PART) NP<class> Engineering project managers participate in writing specifications, researching, and selecting suppliers and materials Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, ObjectProperty ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP NP<class> [ (VB NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) NP<class>,)* and | or ] VB NEG(be | have | CATV | PART) [(NP<class>,)* and] NP<class> A smoke sensor performs a sensing and event function //Each interaction pattern can be readable or writable through an endpoint ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP VB [(NP<class>,)* and | or ] NP<class> [ADV] PREP [(NP<class>,)* and | or ] NP<class> It should be possible to define the target of a constraint inside a Permission, Prohibition or Duty/Being able to tie Permission, Prohibition, Duty, and Constraint entities together with an AND, OR or XOR relationship ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP [(NP<class>,)* and] NP<class> VB NEG(be | have | CATV | PART) [(NP<class>,)* and] NP<class> A zone and an adjacent zone share an interface ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP List NP<class1> PREP NP<class2> List all games of a certain Genre ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP Where | (How [many]) can | do PRON VB NEG(be | have | CATV | PART) NP<class1>? Where can I get R software? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP Where | (How [many]) can | do PRON VB NEG(be | have | CATV | PART) NP<class1> PREP NP<class2>? Where do I get updates for MUSCLE? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP Where | (How [many]) can | do PRON VB NEG(be | have | CATV | PART) NP<class1> PREP NP<class2> VB NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) ? How can I get problems with multiscan fixed? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP [ADV] Which | What | How | How many | Do | (Be there) [a| any | be] NP<class1> VB [PREP] NP<class2> ? What items exist in a game? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP What | Which is the relation between NP<class1> and [(NP<class>,)* and] NP<class2>? What is the relation between organization and devices? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP What be NP<class1> AP<property> NP<class2>? What are the games similar to this one? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP [ADV] Do NP<class1> PREP NP<class2> VB NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) ? At what point did the license type of SpikeLI change? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP In what NP<class> be NP<class2> VB NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) ? In what language was Ringo implemented? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP [Through ] What | Which | How many NP<class1> does NP<class2> VB NEG(be / have / CATV / PART)? Which properties does a people counting observe? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP (Be there) | (What | How [many] [be]) NP<class1> [PREP] NP<class2> REPRO NP<class3> VB ? Are there any modification to the clustering algorithm that Weka uses? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP Who be NP<class1> PREP NP<class2>? Who is the owner of a given device? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP Who do NP<class> VB ? Who does the player play with? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP Who be NP<class1> PRON VB NP<class2>? Who are the friends that play other games as well with this player? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP When is NP<class1> PREP NP<class2> AP<property>? When was the 1.0 version of MUSCLE released? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP Do PRON VB1 NP<class1> VB2 NP<class2>? Do I need a license key to use Ringo? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP NP<class1> VB1 NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) [QUAN] NP<class2> PREP NP<class3> An operation may produce output data into output data points ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP NP<class1> VB1 NEG(be | have | CATV | PART) NP<class2> [REPRO] VB2 NP<class3> A service shall specify the device that is offering the service ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP NP<class1> VB1 NP<class> PREP NP<class2> VB2 An Assertion policy reflects policy terms that a party believes to have. ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP VB1 NP<class1> by VB2 NP<class2> Extend the temporal constraints by setting a time reference, any period in the rightOperand refers to this point in time. ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP NP<class1> VB1 NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) NP<class2> VB2 NP<class3> PREP REPRO NP<class4> VB3 NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) A function represents the functionality necessary toaccomplish the task for which a device is designed ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP Do PRON VB1 NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) NP<class1> REPRO VB2 NP<class2>? Do I know anyone who has used PUMA or processed DXF? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP What NP<class1> VB1 NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) NP<class2> REPRO [(VB2 NP<class3>,)* or]? What kind of games are owned by players that have certain achievement? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP Can NP<class1> VB1 NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) NP<class2> REPRO VB2 NP<class2> PREP NP<class3>? Can Dropbox work with data that are output from vsn? ObjectProperty Class (Thing, Nothing) someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP Can PRON VB1 NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) NP<class2> [(PREP NP<class>)*] PREP NP<class3> ? Can I install Rgraphviz on a university computer? // Can I use some components of ppiStats for my software? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP (What be) | Can NP<class1> VB NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) NP<class2> PREP NP<class3> [(PREP NP<class>)*]? Can Eclipse export from its proprietary data format to an open format such as csv, txt? //What are the most common genres played by players with a certain character class in a game? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP Which [be] NP<class1> PREP NP<class2> [REPRO] VB NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) NP<class3>? What are the games where a player can use this item? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP If NP<class> VB NP<class> PREP NP<class>, how VB NP<class>? If a player is given free item in the game, how likely are they to make an in?app purchase? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property How do PRON VB NP<resource>? How do I cite SPSS? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP ADV VB NP<class> PREP NP<class>, how manu NP<class> VB PRON? After gaining an item in the game, how many players use it? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property ODP Where do NP<class1> VB1 NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) REPRO VB2 NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) NP<class2>? Where do the players live who have not made any in?-app purchases? ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-DP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Datatype Property ODP NP<class1> have [CD] attributes [PARA] [(NP<feature>,)* and] NP<feature> Each endpoints has minimun two attributes: URI and mediatype DatatypeProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-DP-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Datatype Property ODP How AP<feature> be NP<class1>? How reliable is Kakadu? DatatypeProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-DP-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Datatype Property ODP Be NP<class1> [PREP] AP<feature>? Is ppiStats scriptable? DatatypeProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-Di-EN LP-Di-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Disjoint Classes ODP NP<class> differ | be different | be differentiate from NP<class> Non-opioid agents differ from opioid agents Class (Thing, Nothing), disjointWith ALC
LSP-SV-EN LP-SV-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Specified Values ODP NP<feature> can | may be [(AP<value>,)*] or AP<value> Size may be small, medium, or big Individual, Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-PA-EN CP-PA-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Participation ODP NP<object> participate| take part in| be involved in (NP<event>,)* and] NP<event> Birds build nests Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-PCP-EN CP-PCP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Co-participation ODP (NP<object>,)* and NP<object> participate | (take part) | (be involved) in [(NP<event>,)* and] NP<event> Aldo Gangemi and Valentina Presutti participate in the ISWC 2007 conference Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, someValuesOf, SymmetricProperty ALEI
LSP-PCP-EN CP-PCP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Co-participation ODP NP<object> participate| (take part)| (be involved) with in [(NP<event>,)* and] NP<event> Action Engine participates with Microsoft at 3GSM World Congress Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, someValuesOf, SymmetricProperty ALEI
LSP-CD-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Class Definition What | Who | Which be NP<class> ? What is a servient? Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-CD-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Class Definition Be there [a | any] NP<class>? Is there a community development? Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-CD-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Class Definition Which NP<class> be there? Which devices are there? Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-CD-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Class Definition Which NP<class> can PRON see? Which devices can I see? Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-CD-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Class Definition Express NP<class> Express complex constraints such as 'No use in UK after 7 days'. Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-CD-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Class Definition Be able | possible to define NP<class> Being able to define a 'unit-of-count' for duty actions Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-CD-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Class Definition There be NP<class> There are building elements Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-OP-Min-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to ObjectProperty Minimum Cardinality related to a Datatype Property or Object Property ODP NP<class1> VB NEG(have) (at least CD) | (minimum CD) | (more than CD) | (CD NEG(zero) or more) NP<class2> A device performs one or more functions Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, minCardinality ALQ
LSP-OP-Max-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to ObjectProperty Maximum Cardinality related to a Datatype Property or Object Property NP<class1> VB NEG(have) (at most) | maximum CD NP<class2> An access mapping can be applied at most to one endpoint Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, maxCardinality ALQ
LSP-SYM-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Symmetry A NP<property> VB between N<class> A partnership is established between organizations SymmetricProperty, ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing) ALI
LSP-U-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Union NP<class1> VB NP<class2> or [(NP<class>,)* or ] PRON [VB NEG(be)] NP<class3> A mapping can transform keys to object properties or datatype properties. unionOf, ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing) ALU
LSP-INTER-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Intersection NP<class1> VB NP<class2> REPRO VB NP<class3> An endpoint can be relative to an endpoint that must not be relative. ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing), intersectionOf ALE
LSP-LO-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to LocationODP Where be NP<class> VB? Where is something located? rdfs:subClassOf AL
LSP-COMPL-EN Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to complementOf Which be NP<class> REPRO VB not NP<class>? Which are the heliport that are not under state control? Class, ObjectProperty, someValuesFrom , complementOf ALC
LSP-COMPL-EN Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to complementOf Which be NP<class> REPRO do not VB PREP NP<class>? Which are the heliport that do not belong to the trans-European transport network? Class, ObjectProperty, someValuesFrom , complementOf ALC
LSP-COMPL-EN Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to complementOf NP<class> can be AP<feature> NP<class> PRON must not be AP<feature> An endpoint can be relative to an endpoint that must not be relative Class, ObjectProperty, someValuesFrom , complementOf ALC
ID Name Pattern Example OWL constructs DL Expresivity
LSP-DC-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Defined Classes and SubclassOf relation ODPs [A| any] NP<subclass> be [a| any] NP<superclass> REPRO VB [(NP<class>,)* and] NP<class> A device is any machine or component that attaches to a computer Class (Thing, Nothing), subclassOf AL
LSP-DC-SC-EN LP-DC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Defined Classes and SubclassOf relation ODPs [A| any] NP<subclass> be [a| any] NP<superclass> REPRO VB [(NP<class>,)* and] NP<class> A device is any machine or component that attaches to a computer Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-DC-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Defined Classes and SubclassOf relation ODPs [A| any] NP<subclass> REPRO VB [(NP<class>,)* and| or NP<class> be [a] NP<superclass> A workflow that contains at least one business task is a business plan Class (Thing, Nothing), subclassOf AL
LSP-DC-SC-EN LP-DC-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Defined Classes and SubclassOf relation ODPs [A| any] NP<subclass> REPRO VB [(NP<class>,)* and| or NP<class> be [a] NP<superclass> A workflow that contains at least one business task is a business plan Class (Thing, Nothing), AL
LSP-Min-OP-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Maximum Cardinality and Object Property ODP NP<class1> VB CD or more NP<class2> PREP VB NP<class3> A device performs one or more functionalities in order to accomplish a particular task someValuesFrom, maxCardinality, ObjectProperty, Class (Thing, Nothing) ALEQ
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation "or" Constituency "or" Componency "or" Collection-Entity ODPs NP<whole> be PART [CD] CN-PART [PARA] [(NP<part>,)* and] NP<part> A state machine workflow is made up of a set of states, transitions, and actions Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-CONS-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation "or" Constituency "or" Componency "or" Collection-Entity ODPs NP<whole> be PART [CD] CN-PART [PARA] [(NP<part>,)* and] NP<part> A state machine workflow is made up of a set of states, transitions, and actions Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-COM-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation "or" Constituency "or" Componency "or" Collection-Entity ODPs NP<whole> be PART [CD] CN-PART [PARA] [(NP<part>,)* and] NP<part> A state machine workflow is made up of a set of states, transitions, and actions Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN CP-CE-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Simple Part-Whole relation "or" Constituency "or" Componency "or" Collection-Entity ODPs NP<whole> be PART [CD] CN-PART [PARA] [(NP<part>,)* and] NP<part> A state machine workflow is made up of a set of states, transitions, and actions Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, inverseOf, someValuesOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<resource1> have [(NP<resource>, )* and | or] NP<resource2> Each interaction pattern has a name and a Web Resource address ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<resource1> have [(NP<resource>, )* and | or] NP<resource2> Each interaction pattern has a name and a Web Resource address Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<resource1> have [(NP<resource>, )* and | or] NP<resource2> Each interaction pattern has a name and a Web Resource address rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing) AL
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<resource> VB NP<resource> shoud specified In addition to the existing identifiers of a policy means for expressing a version of this policy should specified. ObjectProperty,rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<resource> VB NP<resource> shoud specified In addition to the existing identifiers of a policy means for expressing a version of this policy should specified. Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<resource> VB NP<resource> shoud specified In addition to the existing identifiers of a policy means for expressing a version of this policy should specified. rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs Which properties have NP<class1>? Which properties has a shading device? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs Which properties have NP<class1>? Which properties has a shading device? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs Which properties have NP<class1>? Which properties has a shading device? rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs Which  | Can  | Do [be] NP<resource> [REPRO] have  [( NP<resource>,)* and] NP<resource>? Which attributes can have a device? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs Which  | Can  | Do [be] NP<resource> [REPRO] have  [( NP<resource>,)* and] NP<resource>? Which attributes can have a device? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs Which  | Can  | Do [be] NP<resource> [REPRO] have  [( NP<resource>,)* and] NP<resource>? Which attributes can have a device? rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs What | Which  be NP<resource> PRON have NP<resource>? What is the set of datatypes that have a datatype quality X? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs What | Which  be NP<resource> PRON have NP<resource>? What is the set of datatypes that have a datatype quality X? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs What | Which  be NP<resource> PRON have NP<resource>? What is the set of datatypes that have a datatype quality X? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs What | Where [be] NP<resource> [PREP] NP<resource> have | be [there]? What achievements does a game have? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs What | Where [be] NP<resource> [PREP] NP<resource> have | be [there]? What achievements does a game have? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs What | Where [be] NP<resource> [PREP] NP<resource> have | be [there]? What achievements does a game have? rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs How long NP<resource> have PREP? How long has Jaguar been around? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs How long NP<resource> have PREP? How long has Jaguar been around? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs How long NP<resource> have PREP? How long has Jaguar been around? rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs What | Which  attribute [can] have NP<resource>? Which attributes can have a device? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs What | Which  attribute [can] have NP<resource>? Which attributes can have a device? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs What | Which  attribute [can] have NP<resource>? Which attributes can have a device? rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<resource1> have [(NP<resource>,)* and | or] NP<resource2> PREP NP<resource3> All organizations have the same roles in a partnership ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<resource1> have [(NP<resource>,)* and | or] NP<resource2> PREP NP<resource3> All organizations have the same roles in a partnership Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<resource1> have [(NP<resource>,)* and | or] NP<resource2> PREP NP<resource3> All organizations have the same roles in a partnership rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<resource> NP<resource> provide NP<resource> For a relativeTimePeriod constraint the rightOperand has to provide a time period as value. ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<resource> NP<resource> provide NP<resource> For a relativeTimePeriod constraint the rightOperand has to provide a time period as value. Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs NP<resource> NP<resource> provide NP<resource> For a relativeTimePeriod constraint the rightOperand has to provide a time period as value. rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs (What be) | How [many] NP<resource> have NP<resource>  [(PREP NP<resource>)*] PREP NP<resource>? What consumable items does a player have in game? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs (What be) | How [many] NP<resource> have NP<resource>  [(PREP NP<resource>)*] PREP NP<resource>? What consumable items does a player have in game? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs (What be) | How [many] NP<resource> have NP<resource>  [(PREP NP<resource>)*] PREP NP<resource>? What consumable items does a player have in game? rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs In how many NP<resource> do NP<resource>  have NP<resource>? In how many games does the player have all the achievements? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs In how many NP<resource> do NP<resource>  have NP<resource>? In how many games does the player have all the achievements? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs In how many NP<resource> do NP<resource>  have NP<resource>? In how many games does the player have all the achievements? rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs How NP<resource>  have NP<resource> PREP NP<resource>? How big percentage of players have a certain item in the game? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs How NP<resource>  have NP<resource> PREP NP<resource>? How big percentage of players have a certain item in the game? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs How NP<resource>  have NP<resource> PREP NP<resource>? How big percentage of players have a certain item in the game? rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs Which [(NP<resource>,)* and] PREP NP<resource> have NP<resource> COMP? Which capitals from the population center has a population density higher than x? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs Which [(NP<resource>,)* and] PREP NP<resource> have NP<resource> COMP? Which capitals from the population center has a population density higher than x? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs Which [(NP<resource>,)* and] PREP NP<resource> have NP<resource> COMP? Which capitals from the population center has a population density higher than x? rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs Which [(NP<resource>,)* and] PREP NP<resource> have NP<resource> COMP? Which capitals from the population center has a population density higher than x? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs Which [(NP<resource>,)* and] PREP NP<resource> have NP<resource> COMP? Which capitals from the population center has a population density higher than x? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN CP-PW-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs Which [(NP<resource>,)* and] PREP NP<resource> have NP<resource> COMP? Which capitals from the population center has a population density higher than x? rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom, inverseOf ALEI
LSP-INST-SC-EN Instance or Subclass Examples of NP<class1> is | are [PARA] [(NP<resource1>, and)*]NP<resource2> Examples of properties are temperature, energy or smoke Individual AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Instance or Subclass Examples of NP<class1> is | are [PARA] [(NP<resource1>, and)*]NP<resource2> Examples of properties are temperature, energy or smoke Class (Thing, Nothing),rdfs:subClassOf AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition [(NP<resource1>,)* and] NP<resource2> is | are examples of NP<class> Water or gas are examples of commodities Individual AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition [(NP<resource1>,)* and] NP<resource2> is | are examples of NP<class> Water or gas are examples of commodities Class (Thing, Nothing),rdfs:subClassOf AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition What type of NP<class> is <instance>? What type of software is vsn? Individual AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition What type of NP<class> is <instance>? What type of software is vsn? Class (Thing, Nothing),rdfs:subClassOf AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition What type is NP<class> of? What type is the item of? Individual AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition What type is NP<class> of? What type is the item of? Class (Thing, Nothing),rdfs:subClassOf AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition Is NP<resource1> NP<class>? Is the output format of Spotfire proprietary? Individual AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition Is NP<resource1> NP<class>? Is the output format of Spotfire proprietary? Class (Thing, Nothing),rdfs:subClassOf AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition Which be NP<class> REPRO be NP<class>? Which are the FFCC stations that are stopping places Individual AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition Which be NP<class> REPRO be NP<class>? Which are the FFCC stations that are stopping places Class (Thing, Nothing),rdfs:subClassOf AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition What are the [possible] types of NP<resource1> [PREP NP<resource2>]? What are the types of achievements in this game? Individual AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition What are the [possible] types of NP<resource1> [PREP NP<resource2>]? What are the types of achievements in this game? Class (Thing, Nothing),rdfs:subClassOf AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition What type of NP<class> are collected? What types of autonomy assessment data are collected? Individual AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition What type of NP<class> are collected? What types of autonomy assessment data are collected? Class (Thing, Nothing),rdfs:subClassOf AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition What are the types of NP<resource1>  NP<resource2>  have? What are the types of achievements a game can have? Individual AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition Is NP<resource1> available as a  NP<resource2>? Is Weka available as a web service? Class (Thing, Nothing),rdfs:subClassOf AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition Is NP<resource1> available as a  NP<resource2>? Is Weka available as a web service? Individual AL
LSP-INST-SC-EN LP-SC-01 Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass definition What are the types of NP<resource1>  NP<resource2>  have? What are the types of achievements a game can have? Class (Thing, Nothing),rdfs:subClassOf AL
LSP-INT-SC-OP-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass and Object property ODPs NP<class1> VB NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) NP<class2> REPRO be a type of NP<class3> The price is also characterized by a value using currency, which is a type of unit of measure rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-INT-SC-OP-EN Lexico Syntactic Pattern corresponding to Instance or Subclass and Object property ODPs NP<class1> VB NEG(be / have / CATV / PART) NP<class2> REPRO be a type of NP<class3> The price is also characterized by a value using currency, which is a type of unit of measure Individual, Class (Thing, Nothing), ObjectProperty, someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property "or" Simple Part-Whole relation ODPs It should be possible to define  NP<resource> PREP NP<resource> PREP NP<resource> It should be possible to define the price for duty/duties of payment for all permissions of a policy in a global way ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property It should be possible to define  NP<resource> PREP NP<resource> PREP NP<resource> It should be possible to define the price for duty/duties of payment for all permissions of a policy in a global way Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property Which NP<resource> be there PREP NP<resource>? Which visualisation software is there for TSV? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property Which NP<resource> be there PREP NP<resource>? Which visualisation software is there for TSV? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property Be NP<resource> AP<feature> PREP NP<resource>? Is Ringo appropriate software for data annotation? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property Be NP<resource> AP<feature> PREP NP<resource>? Is Ringo appropriate software for data annotation? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property Be NP<resource>  PREP NP<resource>? Is there a publication with rama? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property Be NP<resource>  PREP NP<resource>? Is there a publication with rama? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property What be NP<resource> PREP NP<resource>? What is the licensing history of SLGI? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property What be NP<resource> PREP NP<resource>? What is the licensing history of SLGI? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property Can | Do | CN  PRON  VB NP<resource> ? Can I render gif if the software supplier goes out of business? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property Can | Do | CN  PRON  VB NP<resource> ? Can I render gif if the software supplier goes out of business? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)
LSP-OP-DP-EN LP-OP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property [What  | Which  | Where ] be there [(NP<resource1>, )* and] NP<resource1> [(PREP NP<resource1>, and)*] PREP NP<resource2> ? Which are the geometries and maximum levels of the Curvas de Nivel Maestra of bathymetric type? ObjectProperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE
LSP-OP-DP-EN LP-DP-01 Lexico Syntactic ODPs corresponding to Object Property "or" Datatype Property [What  | Which  | Where ] be there [(NP<resource1>, )* and] NP<resource1> [(PREP NP<resource1>, and)*] PREP NP<resource2> ? Which are the geometries and maximum levels of the Curvas de Nivel Maestra of bathymetric type? Datatypeproperty, rdfs:subClassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing), someValuesFrom ALE(D)

Corpus of annotated ontological requirements

Here are the corpus of 834 functional ontological requirements annotated with LSPs and grouped according to the ontologies they belong to. These requirements can be written in the form of natural language questions (with the corresponding answer) or as sentences.

Ontology name Ontology URI
Core ontology http://iot.linkeddata.es/def/core/index-en.html
Identifier Competency questions / Natural language sentence (fact) Answer Lexico-Syntactic Pattern associated
core-1 What is an IoT device? LSP-CD-EN
core-2 What is a partnership? LSP-CD-EN
core-3 What attributes has a partnership? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-4 Which are the relationships a partnership is involved in ? LSP-OP-EN
core-5 How many organizations can have a partnership? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-6 What is the relation between organization and devices? LSP-OP-EN
core-7 What is an IoT infrastructre? LSP-CD-EN
core-8 Who is the owner of a given device? LSP-OP-A-EN
core-9 A device has a unique identifier LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-10 Which attributes can have a device? A name, an avatar, group membership, etc. LSP-DP-EN
core-11 What is a device profile? LSP-CD-EN
core-12 A device can have a status LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-13 A device can have a location LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-14 Which are the social relationships a device can be involved in? ownership LSP-OP-EN
core-15 Which roles are involved in a ownership relationship? devices, services and agents LSP-OP-EN
core-16 Which roles are involved in a partnership relationship? organizations LSP-OP-EN
core-17 What is a user? LSP-CD-EN
core-18 Who is a service provider? LSP-OP-A-EN
core-19 What are the parameters that has a service? owner, avatar, description, name LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-20 What is a service logical name? LSP-CD-EN
core-21 Which devices are there? LSP-CD-EN
core-22 What are the devices of a given agent or organization? LSP-OP-EN
core-23 Which devices can I see? LSP-CD-EN
core-24 Which services can I see? LSP-CD-EN
core-25 What are the devices of a specific partner? LSP-OP-DP-EN
core-26 What are the services of a specific partner? LSP-OP-DP-EN
core-27 Which is the profile of a given device? LSP-OP-DP-EN
core-28 A device profile indicates the device name LSP-OP-EN
core-29 A device profile indicates the device avatar LSP-OP-EN
core-30 A device profile indicates the type of device, e.g: sensor or actuator LSP-OP-EN
core-31 A device profile indicates the device vendor LSP-OP-EN
core-32 A device profile indicates the device serial number LSP-OP-EN
core-33 A service profile indicates the service name LSP-OP-EN
core-34 A service profile indicates the service avatar LSP-OP-EN
core-35 A service profile indicates the service owner LSP-OP-EN
core-36 A service profile indicates the service provider LSP-OP-EN
core-37 A service profile indicates the service description (in text) LSP-OP-EN
core-38 A service profile indicates the service type LSP-OP-EN
core-39 A partnership is established between organizations LSP-SYM-EN
core-40 A partnership is established between only 2 organizations LSP-SYM-EN
core-41 A neighbourhood is the group of partnerships you have LSP-DC-SC-EN
core-42 An organization has users LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-43 One of the users of an organization is the manager LSP-DC-SC-EN
core-44 Users has to belong to one organization LSP-OP-Exact-EN
core-45 All organizations have the same roles in a partnership LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-46 Users can have different roles in the organization LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-47 user can create a group of services/devices LSP-OP-EN
core-48 The security can be set up at a group level LSP-OP-EN
core-49 Authorization can be set up at the level of properties/actions LSP-OP-EN
core-50 What is a building? LSP-CD-EN
core-51 Where is something located? LSP-LO-EN
core-52 Which devices measure temperature? LSP-CD-EN
core-53 Which devices measure CO2? LSP-OP-EN
core-54 Which devices measure noise? LSP-OP-EN
core-55 Which devices measure humidity? LSP-OP-EN
core-56 The IoT;User can be human (human user) or non;human (digital user) LSP-SC-EN
core-57 Digital user consumes services LSP-OP-EN
core-58 A human user interacts using applications LSP-OP-EN
core-59 An application is a specialized form of service LSP-SC-EN
core-60 An Entity can be physical or virtual LSP-SC-Di-EC-EN
core-61 A physical entity is controlled by an actuator LSP-OP-EN
core-62 A physical entity is monitored by a sensor LSP-OP-EN
core-63 A physical entity may have one or more attached tag LSP-OP-Min-EN
core-64 A virtual entity represents a physical entity LSP-OP-EN
core-65 Actuators and sensors are kinds of IoT device LSP-SC-EN
core-66 IoT devices interact through a network LSP-OP-EN
core-67 IoT devices are connected with an IoT gateway LSP-OP-EN
core-68 Data Stores hold data relating to IoT systems LSP-OP-EN
core-69 An entity has an identifier LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-70 An entity can have more than one identifier LSP-OP-Min-EN
core-71 A network connects endpoints LSP-OP-EN
core-72 A service exposes one or more endpoints by which it can be invoked LSP-OP-Min-EN
core-73 An IoT gateway is a digital entity LSP-SC-EN
core-74 IoT gateways interact through networks LSP-OP-EN
core-75 IoT gateways expose endpoints LSP-OP-EN
core-76 IoT gateways connect IoT devices LSP-OP-EN
core-77 IoT gateways use data stores LSP-OP-EN
core-78 IoT device interacts with one or more networks LSP-OP-Min-EN
core-79 IoT device exposes one or more endpoints LSP-OP-Min-EN
core-80 A service interacts with other entities via one or more networks LSP-Min-and-OP-EN
core-81 A service interacts with zero or more IoT gateways LSP-OP-EN
core-82 A service interacts with zero or more IoT devices LSP-OP-EN
core-83 A service can interact with other services LSP-OP-EN
core-84 A service can use data stores LSP-OP-EN
core-85 A virtual entity interacts through an endpoint LSP-OP-EN
core-86 Everything in an IoT system is a kind of entity LSP-SC-EN
core-87 Data associated with services, devices and gateways can be held in data stores LSP-OP-EN
core-88 Human users uses applications LSP-OP-EN
core-89 An application typically uses Services LSP-OP-EN
core-90 Sensors can monitor the tag attached to a physical entity rather than the physical entity itself LSP-OP-EN
core-91 What is a thing description? LSP-CD-EN
core-92 Each thing is described by WoT Thing Descriptions. LSP-OP-EN
core-93 An endpoint can be relative to an endpoint that must not be relative. LSP-INTER-EN
core-94 Which devices are located at a CERTH lab? LSP-OP-EN
core-95 Which properties does a people counting observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-96 Which properties does a humidity sensor observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-97 Which properties does a light switch observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-98 Which properties does a motion sensor observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-99 Which properties does a thermometer observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-100 Which properties does a CO2 sensor observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-101 Which properties does a HVAC sensor observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-102 Which devices are located at a Oslo SciencePark? LSP-OP-EN
core-103 Which devices are located at UNIKL? LSP-OP-EN
core-104 Which properties does an e;bike charger observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-105 Which properties does a light bulb observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-106 Which properties does a door sensor observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-107 Which properties does a window sensor observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-108 Which properties does a thermostat observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-109 Service thing description should be inline with Device thing description. LSP-OP-EN
core-110 Service thing description should be inline with WoT thing description. LSP-OP-EN
core-111 Service thing description should define the concepts that service produces and provides to end user. LSP-OP-EN
core-112 Service thing description should define the interaction patterns how to interact with products of added value service. LSP-OP-EN
core-113 Service thing description should includeits version. LSP-OP-EN
core-114 Service thing description should define required inputs for the products and supported interaction patterns. LSP-OP-EN
core-115 Which devices are located at a CERTH lab? LSP-OP-EN
core-116 Which properties does a weight scale observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-117 Which properties does a weight scale affect? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-118 Which properties from a weight scale are observed in events? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-119 Which properties does a blood pressure monitor observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-120 Which properties does a blood pressure monitor affect? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-121 Which properties from a blood pressure monitor are observed in events? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-122 Which properties does an activity tracker observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-123 Which properties does an activity tracker affect? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-124 Which properties from an activity trackerare observed in events? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-125 Which properties from a panic button observed in events? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
core-126 Which properties does a motion sensor observe? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
Ontology name Ontology URI
WoT VICINITY http://iot.linkeddata.es/def/wot/index-en.html
Identifier Competency questions / Natural language sentence (fact) Answer Lexico-Syntactic Pattern associated
wot-1 What is a thing in the web thing context? The abstract concept of a physical entity that can either be a real-world artieact, such as a device, or a virtual entity that represents physicality, such as a room or group of devices LSP-CD-EN, LSP-SC-EN
wot-2 What is a servient? The addressable application endpoint of a Thing that makes it interactive by providing a WoT Interface and means to execute application logic LSP-CD-EN
wot-3 What is a repository? A registry for Thing Descriptions that provides a Web interface to register Thing Descriptions and look them up, for intance using SPARQL queries LSP-CD-EN
wot-4 Things in the WoT architecture are represented by servients, LSP-OP-EN
wot-5 Servient can represent virtual things as well. LSP-OP-EN
wot-6 Servients are hosted anywhere, a smartphone, local gateway, or the cloud. LSP-OP-EN
wot-7 Servient communicate to each other through a WoT interface LSP-OP-EN
wot-8 Servient can have cliente or server roles or both. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
wot-9 Thing Descriptions can be registered in Td repositories. LSP-OP-EN
wot-10 What is a property? A property provides readable and/or writeable data that can be static (e.g., supported mode, rated output voltage, etc.) or dynamic (e.g., current fill level of water, minimum recorded temperature, etc.). (From wg documentation) LSP-CD-EN
wot-11 What is an action? The Action interaction pattern targets changes or processes on a Thing that take a certain time to complete (i.e., actions cannot be applied instantaneously like property writes). LSP-CD-EN
wot-12 What is an event? The Event interaction pattern enables a mechanism to be notified by a Thing on a certain condition. LSP-CD-EN
wot-13 A thing interaction can be available over different or multiple protocols LSP-OP-EN
wot-14 What is a protocol? Any web protocol that is supported by WoT interfaces. LSP-CD-EN
wot-15 Each thing has at least an interaction pattern LSP-OP-Min-EN
wot-16 An interaction pattern can have different endpoints LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
wot-17 Each interaction pattern has its own attributes LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
wot-18 Each interaction pattern has an endpoint LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
wot-19 Each endpoints has minimun two attributes: URI and mediatype LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
wot-20 Security is associated with things LSP-OP-EN
wot-21 An endpoint can be associated with a thing without determine the interaction patterns LSP-OP-EN
wot-22 Each interaction pattern has a name and a Web Resource address LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
wot-23 An interaction has a type and attributes LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
wot-24 Each interaction pattern can be readable or writable through an endpoint LSP-DP-EN
Ontology name Ontology URI
WoT-mappings ontology http://iot.linkeddata.es/def/wot-mappings/index-en.html
Identifier Competency questions / Natural language sentence (fact) Answer Lexico-Syntactic Pattern associated
map-1 A TED describes one or more web thing LSP-OP-Min-EN
map-2 A TED refers to a service accesible in an URI LSP-OP-EN
map-3 A Thing ecosystem describes relations between TEDs LSP-SYM-EN
map-4 A thing description  can have access mappings defined LSP-OP-EN
map-5 An access mapping defines the transformation to be carried out for a specific key LSP-OP-EN
map-6 An access mapping can have many mappings defined LSP-OP-EN
map-7 A mapping can transform keys to object properties or datatype properties. LSP-U-EN
map-8 An object property mapping transforms keys to object properties LSP-OP-EN
map-9 A datatype property mapping transforms keys to datatype properties LSP-OP-EN
map-10 An object property mapping can have many target classes to be the type of the generated instances LSP-OP-EN
map-11 A datatype property mapping can have many target (consistent) datatypes to be the datatype of the generated values LSP-OP-EN
map-12 An object property mapping generate instances transforming values following the mappings defined in a another thing description. LSP-OP-EN
map-13 A mapping might be needed to be executed befor another mapping LSP-OP-EN
map-14 A mapping has a JSON path LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
map-15 An access mapping can be applied at most to one endpoint LSP-OP-Max-EN
Ontology name Ontology URI
OntoDT ontology http://www.ontodm.com/doku.php?id=ontodt
Identifier Competency questions / Natural language sentence (fact) Answer Lexico-Syntactic Pattern associated
ontodt-1 What is the set of characterizing operations for a datatype X? LSP-OP-DP-EN
ontodt-2 What is the set of datatype qualities for a datatype X? LSP-OP-DP-EN
ontodt-3 What is the value space for a datatype X? LSP-OP-DP-EN
ontodt-4 What is the set of datatypes that have a datatype quality X? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
ontodt-5 What is the set of datatypes that have a characterizing operation X? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
ontodt-6 What is the set of datatypes that have a datatype quality X and characterizing operation Y? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
ontodt-7 What are the aggregated datatypes that have an aggregate generator property X? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
ontodt-8 What is the set of aggregate properties for an aggregate datatype X? LSP-OP-DP-EN
ontodt-9 What are the field components for a tuple datatype X? LSP-OP-DP-EN
ontodt-10 What is the base datatype for a set/bag/sequence datatype X? LSP-OP-DP-EN
ontodt-11 What is the base datatype for an extended datatype X? LSP-OP-DP-EN
ontodt-12 What is the subtype generator for an extended datatype X? LSP-OP-DP-EN
ontodt-13 What is the set of extended datatypes that have datatype X as their base datatype? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
ontodt-14 What is the set of extended datatypes that are generated by a subtype generator X? LSP-OP-DP-EN
Ontology name Ontology URI
Dem@care ontology http://www.demcare.eu
Identifier Competency questions / Natural language sentence (fact) Answer Lexico-Syntactic Pattern associated
dem@care-1 What are the protocol parts? Medical consultation, clinical consultation and ecological assessment LSP-CD-EN
dem@care-2 What types of data are collected during medical and clinical consultation? Demographic data and clinical data LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-3 What types of demographic data are collected? Date of birth, gender, education level, laterality, weight LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-4 What is the gender information? Female, male LSP-CD-EN
dem@care-5 What are the main types of education level? Basic education, higher education, ... LSP-CD-EN
dem@care-6 What are the main types of laterality? Right-handed and left handed LSP-CD-EN
dem@care-7 What types of clinical data are collected? Diagnosis data, cognitive abilities assessment data, neuropsychiatric/mood assessment data, motricity abilities assessment data, autonomy assessment data LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-8 What are the types of diagnosis? Healthy, Alzheimer’s disease at predementia stage, Alzheimer’s disease at dementia stage LSP-INST-EN
dem@care-9 What types of cognitive abilities assessment data are collected? Mini- mental state exam (MMSE), frontal assessment battery (FAB), trail making test A and B, short cognitive battery, the free and cued selective reminding test LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-10 What data are collected for MMSE? A [0-30]/30 score LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-11 What data are collected for FAB? A [0-18]/18 score LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-12 What data are collected for the trail making test? The number of seconds to complete the test LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-13 What data are collected for the short cognitive battery test? An orientation test score, a 5-word memory test score, a clock test score and a verbal fluency test score. LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-14 What data are collected for the free and cued selective reminding test? A [0-48]/48 score LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-15 What types of neuropsychiatric/mood assessment data are collected? NPI, DSM-IV criteria for depression, apathy inventory (AI) and diagnostic criteria for apathy LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-16 What data are collected for NPI? Frequency (scale 1-4), severity (scale 1-3) and impact on care (scale 1-5) LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-17 What data are collected for DSM-IV criteria? Absence/Presence LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-18 What data are collected for AI and diagnostic criteria for apathy? Absence/Presence LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-19 What types of motricity abilities assessment data are collected? Part III of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) data LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-20 What data are collected for UPDRS? A scores [0-4]/4 for the set of subparts used (trampling when walking, trembling, rigidity, rising from a chair, posture, postural stability, gait, bradykinesia) LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-21 What types of autonomy assessment data are collected? A [0-8]/8 score at Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Elderly (IADL-E) LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-22 What types of steps does ecological assessment consist of? Directed, semi directed, and discussion with clinician LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-23 What are the types of directed tasks? physical directed tasks, vocal directed tasks LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-24 Which are the physical directed tasks? Waking, counting backwards, walking and counting backwards LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-25 Which are the vocal directed tasks? Sentence repeating, articulation control LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-26 What is the nature of a directed task? Mono task, dual task LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-27 Which directed tasks are mono tasks? Walking, counting backwards LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-28 Which directed tasks are dual tasks? Walking and counting backwards LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-29 Which are the tasks of the semi-directed step? Water a plant, pay a bill, answer the phone, turn on TV, prepare hot tea, read an article, call the psychologist, leave the room, prepare the drugbox, ... LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-30 What are the types of tasks in the discussion with clinician step? Directed discussion tasks, free discussion tasks LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-31 Which are the directed discussion tasks? Questions about an article read, questions about the course of the semi directed tasks step LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-32 Which are the free discussion tasks? Verbal description of a picture, free discussion about a picture LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-33 What is assessed in the walking task? Gait, latency, stress level LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-34 What is assessed in the counting backwards task? Latency, stress level, cognitive and neuromuscular impairment LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-35 What is assessed in the walking and counting backwards task? Gait, latency, stress level, cognitive and neuromuscular impairment (voice-based), mutual influence of cognitive activity on motor activity LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-36 What is assessed in the sentence repeating task? Latency, stress level, cognitive and neuromuscular impairment LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-37 What is assessed in the articulation control task? Latency, stress level, neuromuscular impairment in speech production mechanism LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-38 What is assessed in the tasks of the semi-directed protocol step? Cognitive abilities, ability to organize efficiently several activities, functional abilities, stress level LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-39 What is assessed in the tasks of the discussion with clinician step? Affective state, interaction, cognitive and neuromuscular impairment) LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-40 What data are measured for gait assessment? Dynamic balance, step length, stopping displacement, walking speed, walking speed instantaneous LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-41 What data are measured for dynamic balance? A [0-5]/5 score LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-42 What data are measured for step length? Distance in meters LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-43 What data are measured for walking speed? Speed in meters/sec LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-44 What data are measured for walking speed instantaneous? Speed in meters/sec LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-45 What data are measured for stopping displacement? Number of stops during task execution LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-46 What data are measured for latency? Time in seconds LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-47 What data are measured for stress? Time-stamped skin conductance intensity LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-48 What data are measured for cognitive and neuromuscular assessment? Voice-based cognitive and neuromuscular indicators LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-49 What data are measured for affective state assessment? Voice-based affective indicators LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-50 What data are measured for interaction assessment? Voice-based interaction indicators LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-51 What data are measured for neuromuscular impairment in speech production mechanism? Voice-based speech production indicators LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-52 What data are measured for cognitive abilities assessment? Status (completed/omitted/incomplete), number of repetitions and duration, for each of the activities comprising the semi-directed step LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-53 What data are measured for organizational efficiency assessment? Participant’s trajectory in the experimentation room and total distance walked LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-54 What data are measured for functional abilities assessment? Hand trajectories during activity execution LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-55 What functional areas are of clinical relevance for the home and nursing home environments? Sleep, activities of daily living (ADL), social interaction, exercise and mood LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-56 How are the statistics and identified problematic situations about the monitored functional areas reported to the clinician? In the form of daily, weekly and monthly summary reports. LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-57 What types of questionnaires are administered for self-assessment? The PSQI and Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaires for sleep assessment, questionnaires for mood assessment LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-58 What activities (situations) are of clinical interest with respect to sleep? Night sleep (entire sleep episode), napping during the day, awakening in the midst of the sleep episode, leaving the bed (bed exit), visiting the bathroom, visiting rooms other than the bathroom, sleep apneas, periodic limb movements and micro-arousals. LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-59 What information is of clinical interest regarding night sleep? Retiring time, bed time, sleep time, and wake up time LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-60 What information is of clinical interest regarding a nap? Start time and duration LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-61 What information is of clinical interest regarding an awakening? Start time and duration of awakening LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-62 What information is of clinical interest regarding a bed exit? Start time, duration, visited locations (e.g. kitchen) and activities performed (e.g. having a snack) LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-63 What information if of clinical interest regarding a night bathroom visit? Start time and duration LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-64 What information is clinically relevant for sleep assessment? Sleep latency, sleep efficiency, number of arousals at night, number of awakenings at night, number of bed exits, number of night bathroom visits, number of sleep apneas, number of periodic limb movements, number of naps during the day, total duration of naps, self assessed sleep quality (via questionnaires) LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-65 What sleep-related situations indicate a problem or possibly problematic behaviour that needs to be highlighted to the clinician? Sleep latency less than 30 minutes, sleep duration more than 7 hours, sleep efficiency less than 85%, bed exit with visit to rooms other than the bathroom, bed exit with attempt to leave the house, occurrence of more than 5 apneas, fragmented sleep (more than 2 awakenings at night), nocturia (more than 2 bathroom visits at night), periodic limb movements occurrence, napping after lunch, napping for more than 30 minutes and a score of 5 or higher during sleep self-assessment. LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-66 What activities (situations) are of clinical interest with respect to ADLs? Food/drink preparation and consumption activities (e.g. having meal, leaving the table, open/close fridge and kitchen presses, usage of kitchen appliances), housekeeping activities (e.g. do laundry, rubbish disposal), personal hygiene, falls, disorientation, ... LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-67 What information is of clinical interest regarding food and drink preparation? Start time and duration, activities involved in the preparation and their sequence (e.g. heating water in pot, adding pasta to pot) LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-68 What information is of clinical interest regarding food and drink consumption? Start time, duration, location, whether the PwD has left the table while eating, ... LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-69 What information is of clinical interest regarding housekeeping? Type of cleaning/maintenance activity, start time and duration LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-70 What information is of clinical interest regarding personal hygiene? Time spent in the bathroom, ... LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-71 What food and drink preparation-related situations indicate a problem or possibly problematic behaviour that needs to be highlighted to the clinician? Failure to prepare a meal, leaving fridge or cupboards open, ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-72 What food and drink consumption-related situations indicate a problem or possibly problematic behaviour that needs to be highlighted to the clinician? Skipped meals, long duration of meals, eating in inappropriate locations, leaving table while eating, irregular eating patterns, ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-73 What housekeeping-related situations indicate a problem or possibly problematic behaviour that needs to be highlighted to the clinician? Failure to engage in housekeeping activities (e.g. not doing the laundry or disposing of rubbish, not tidying up after meals) LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-74 What personal hygiene-related situations indicate a problem or possibly problematic behaviour that needs to be highlighted to the clinician? failure to engage in personal hygiene LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-75 What activities (situations) are of clinical interest with respect to social interaction? Face to face interaction, telephone interaction, ... LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-76 What information is clinically relevant for social interaction assessment? Number of people encountered per day, number of face to face interactions, number of telephone interactions, speed and speech volume, number of communicative attempts, ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-77 What social interaction related situations indicate a problem or possibly problematic behaviour that needs to be highlighted to the clinician? Insufficient number of people encountered per day, insufficient speech utterances made per day, slow speech speed, low speech volume, speech irregularity, insufficient number of conversations had daily, lack of questioning utterances by the PwD, insufficient number of communicative attempts, ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-78 What activities (situations) are of clinical interest with respect to physical activity? Indoors/outdoors incidental and dedicated physical activities (e.g. walking, running, cycling, ...) LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-79 What information is clinically relevant for walking? Walk speed, distance travelled, stride length, onset time, duration, ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-80 What information is clinically relevant for dedicated physical activities (i.e. exercises)? Onset time, duration, exercise intensity, heart rate, repetitions... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-81 What information is clinically relevant for physical activity assessment? Frequency, duration, ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-82 What physical activity related situations indicate a problem or possibly problematic behaviour that needs to be highlighted to the clinician? Inappropriate exercise duration, inappropriate exercise intensity, slow walk speed, late exercise onset times, abnormal heart rate, LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-83 What are the main types of entities? Persons, Objects and Places LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-84 What are the main categories a person may belong to? Person with dementia, carer, clinician LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-85 What are the main types of objects? Appliances (e.g. kettle, television), furniture (e.g. bed, kitchen table), daily living objects (e.g. plate, sink) LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-86 What are the main categories of places? Indoors and outdoors LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-87 What are the types of indoor place? The individual house rooms (e.g. bedroom) LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-88 What are the main types of events? Events related to a person (i.e. activities and states), events related to physiological measurements, events related to ambient measurements, and events related to objects LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-89 What are the main types of information describing an event? The agent of the event (i.e. the referred person, object or room), start time, duration, and location (where applicable) LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-90 What are the main categories of events? Atomic (detected by WP3 and WP4 analysis components) and complex (derived through reasoning by WP5) LSP-OP-DP-EN
dem@care-91 What activities are detected? Eating, drinking, dialing a number, picking up the phone, walking, sleeping, speaking, ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-92 What states are detected? Person posture (e.g. sitting, standing), person localisation (e.g. person in the bedroom, person near the bed), person moving, person having an apnea incidence, ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-93 What object related events are detected? Phone ringing, fridge open, usage of an object, ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-94 What ambient measurements are detected? Light level, noise level, ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-95 What physiological measurements are detected? Heart rate, skin conductance, ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-96 What activities are inferred? Having meal, preparing meal, leaving the table during a meal, leaving bed at night, taking a nap, LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-97 What are the main types of data considered? Observations (i.e. information about the activities/events/states of the monitored person), reports (i.e. manually inputted data made available via questionnaires, clinical consultation, etc.), interpretation result (i.e. interpretations drawn about a person’s behaviour), ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-98 What are the main types of data an observation may refer to? Measurements (physiological and ambient), detected events and inferred events LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-99 What types of descriptive information are relevant to an observation? The type of data the observation refers to, the time the observation is made available to the system, its plausibility and its provider (i.e. what sensor/processing component made it available to the system) LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-100 What are the main types of data a report may refer to? Questionnaires, clinical characteristics, demographic data, ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-101 What types of descriptive information are relevant to a report? The type of data the report refers to, the time it is made available to the system, its provider (i.e. what sensor/processing component made it available to the system) and (possibly) its plausibility LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-102 What are the main types of data an interpretation result may refer to? Problems relevant to functional areas considered, summary information, ... LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-103 What types of descriptive information are relevant to a result? The type of data the result refers to, the time the result is made available to the system, its plausibility and its provider (i.e. what sensor/processing component made it available to the system) LSP-OP-EN
dem@care-104 What are the main types of sensors? Wearable sensors and fixed sensors LSP-INST-EN
dem@care-105 What are the possible types of wearable sensors? The Philips Discrete Tensions Indicator (DTI-2), the Tyndall Rev3 Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit sensor (Rev3 WIMU), the GoPro wearable camera, the wearable microphone, ... LSP-INST-EN
dem@care-106 What are the possible types of fixed sensors? The Axis P13 static camera, kinect, ... LSP-INST-EN
dem@care-107 What are the possible types processing components? The Rev2 WIMU signal processing software component (SPS), DTI-2 ASW, the offline speech analyser component (OSA), the complex activity recognition component (CAR), the semantic interpretation component (SI), ... LSP-INST-EN
Ontology name Ontology URI
Dem@care ontology http://www.demcare.eu
Competency question / Natural language sentence (fact) Answer Lexico-syntactic pattern
What is the username of the player? Japskua, TheGuy47 LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
Who are the friends of the player? Ivanhoe444, Super1337 LSP-OP-EN
Who are the friends that play other games as well with this player? Japskua, C00LDud3 LSP-OP-EN
Who are the most active players in the game? Michael98, Justin Bieber LSP-OP-EN
What are the achievements of my friends? Cool Guy,Mr. Guru LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
Who does the player play with? Nobody, ArnoldTheHunkz LSP-OP-EN
What are the achievements your friend has received? Guru, Kill’Em’All LSP-OP-EN
What achievements does a game have? Unlock me!, You Rock LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
How many hours has this game been played in total? 50 000 hours LSP-OP-EN
What are the types of achievements in this game? Skill­based, Veteran, Luck INST-SC-EN
What are the types of achievements a game can have? Skill­based, Veteran, Luck INST-SC-EN
What is the genre of the game? RPG, Adventure, Puzzle LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
What items exist in a game? Magical Staff, Ferrari LSP-OP-EN
Who is the creator of the game? Electronic Arts, Janne Parkkila LSP-OP-EN
What is the release date of the game? 38486 LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
What are the games similar to this one? Hitman 1, Hitman 2, MassEffect 2 LSP-OP-EN
List all games of a certain Genre? NHL12, Fifa13, NBA10 LSP-OP-EN
What type is the item of? Consumable Equipable INST-SC-EN
What abilities does an item have? Magic, Equipable, Damage­dealing LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
9. What is the fastest car in the game? Ferrari, Audi A8 LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
How much damage does a weapon deal? 57, A lot LSP-OP-EN
Who has the best kill count in the game? Gamer47 LSP-OP-EN
Who are the top 3 players in the game? 1. Gamer47 ­ 2. MeMee ­ 3. MrUber LSP-OP-EN
What games has the player played? “World of Warcraft”, “Final Fantasy VII”, “Clash ofClans” LSP-OP-EN
What items does the player have? “Sword of Steel”, “Magic Potion”, “Mage’s Hat” LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
What achievements of a certain type does the player have? “Speedy Runner”, “Jumping Hero”, “Rolling Master” LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
What kind of games are owned by players that have certain achievement? NHL12, WoW, Space Invaders LSP-OP-EN
What is the last game a player has played? Hitman 2 LSP-OP-EN
How big percentage of players have a certain item in the game? 23%, 87% LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
What are the most common genres played by players with a certain character class in a game? RPG, Sports, Simulators LSP-OP-EN
What is the preferred weapon of players with a certain character class? Shuriken, Buster Sword, AK­47 LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
What type of weapon are players using who win mostly in the game? Ak­47, Longsword, Crossbow LSP-OP-EN
When was the last time a certain player played this game? 36392 LSP-OP-EN
In how many games does the player have all the achievements? 2, 0, 67 LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
What is the favorite map of the player in the game? de_dust, cs_italy LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
What is the most played map in a game? RunRun LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
What is the difficulty level the player uses in certain game genres? Easy LSP-OP-EN
How many times have I killed someone in a game? 4 LSP-OP-EN
How many goals did I score in FIFA 15? 0 LSP-OP-EN
What is the most common level in the game where players stop playing? Level 4, Level 7, Le Mans ­track LSP-OP-EN
How big percentage of players have made a certain decision in the game? 24%, 6% LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
How big percentage of players skip the cutscenes? 0,99 LSP-OP-EN
How many players mute the game music? 100%, 50 000 LSP-OP-EN
After gaining an item in the game, how many players use it? 100, 5, None LSP-OP-EN
How many times players have died in a level? 50, 600 000 LSP-OP-EN
How big percentage of players use the item in question in other linked games? 2%, 55% LSP-OP-EN
How many players have moved from game to another when they have seen a linkedcommercial? 40 000, 100 million LSP-OP-EN
What is the first action done by the player after an event? Save game, Drink healthpotion, Change equipment LSP-OP-EN
What is the location in map where the players die the most? X:47, Y:58, Z:60 [levelcoordinates] LSP-OP-EN
What equipment does a player have in a game? Sword of Zelda, Dagger of Ice LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
What consumable items does a player have in game? Health Potion, Potion of Mana,Cookie LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
What is the most used item in the game? Baseball bat LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
What are the games where a player can use this item? Sam & Max, Space Quest LSP-OP-EN
How many players have made in­app purchases? 5 000, 8% LSP-OP-EN
How many players who have already spent money in this game, spend money again? 0,03 LSP-OP-EN
What is the likelihood that a player who has purchased in­app purchase in one game, doso in the other one? 47%, 99%, 0.5% LSP-OP-EN
If a player is given free item in the game, how likely are they to make an in­app purchase? 0,85 LSP-OP-EN
What type of items are the most traded ones in the game’s marketplace? “Health potions”, “Consumable Items”, “Cute Cakes” INST-SC-EN
How much money an average player spends in in­app purchases? 56 €, 98 USD LSP-OP-EN
What time are most of the in­app purchases done? “Evening”, between 19­22 GMT LSP-OP-EN
Where do the most paying customers live in? “London”, Singapore, Paris LSP-OP-EN
How long does an average player spend in the game before making first in-­app purchase? 1 hour, 87 minutes, 2 weeks LSP-OP-EN
Where do the players live who have not made any in­-app purchases? “Brazil”, “South Europe” LSP-OP-EN
Where do the players who have done the most in­-app purchases live? “Zimbabwe”, “Nairobi”, “South America” LSP-OP-EN
How many players clicked an ingame advertisement? 50000 LSP-OP-EN
How many players start the other game after seeing an advertisement? 24, 600 LSP-OP-EN
Ontology name Ontology URI
The Software Ontology theswo.sourceforge.net/
Identifier Competency questions / Natural language sentence (fact) Answer Lexico-Syntactic Pattern associated
swo-1 Are there any modification to the clustering algorithm that Weka uses? LSP-OP-EN
swo-2 Does Protege provide XML editing? LSP-OP-EN
swo-3 What software works best with RDF data? LSP-OP-EN
swo-4 Does SIM render a gif? LSP-OP-EN
swo-5 What data from Andrew Ng is analysed with Weka, version 4.0? LSP-OP-EN
swo-6 To what extent does DAVID support appropriate open standards? LSP-OP-EN
swo-7 Is PostgreSQL compatible with dfp? LSP-OP-EN
swo-8 Can I render gif if the software supplier goes out of business? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-9 Given DNA nucleotide sequence, what are the data exports for SPSS version 20? LSP-OP-EN
swo-10 To what extent does Q support appropriate open standards? LSP-OP-EN
swo-11 Is there a mailing list for Microsoft Windows? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-12 How can I get problems with multiscan fixed? LSP-OP-EN
swo-13 Are there any active forums discussing minet use? LSP-OP-EN
swo-14 Where do I get updates for MUSCLE? LSP-OP-EN
swo-15 Can we collaborate with developers of MATLAB? LSP-OP-EN
swo-16 Where can I buy LPE from? LSP-OP-EN
swo-17 Which is the fastest software to read DNA nucleotide sequence? LSP-OP-EN
swo-18 Does prada meet the ISO-4 standard? LSP-OP-EN
swo-19 Do I know anyone who has used puma or processed DXF? LSP-OP-EN
swo-20 How and where has IntelliJ Idea been used successfully in the past? LSP-OP-EN
swo-21 What do others say about UNIX quality? LSP-OP-EN
swo-22 How reliable is Kakadu? LSP-DP-EN
swo-23 What software is better for clustering task given PDF as input type? LSP-OP-EN
swo-24 Who are the potential users of ITALICS? LSP-OP-EN
swo-25 Who else has used oligo today? LSP-OP-EN
swo-26 How popular is Kakadu? LSP-DP-EN
swo-27 How many settings do I need to know to rerun data annotation analysis? LSP-OP-EN
swo-28 To what extent does WordStar support appropriate open standards? LSP-OP-EN
swo-29 What new features are in version 4.3 of ScanArray? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-30 What are the differences between versions of SMAP? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-31 At what point did the license type of SpikeLI change? LSP-OP-EN
swo-32 What is the licensing history of SLGI? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
swo-33 How many license do we need to run vsn productively? LSP-OP-EN
swo-34 Does cost of using XDE make sense for my project? Is XDE cost effective? LSP-OP-EN
swo-35 What level of expertise is required to use ROC? LSP-OP-EN
swo-36 Are there any usage examples for PSI-BLAST? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-37 Does R software have a tutorial? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
swo-38 How well documented is AIDA for developers? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-39 How do I cite SPSS? LSP-OP-EN
swo-40 Is ppiStats scriptable? LSP-DP-EN
swo-41 How can I extend AIDA to include a new function? LSP-OP-EN
swo-42 Can I use some components of ppiStats for my software? LSP-OP-EN
swo-43 What hardware do I need to run ROC? LSP-OP-EN
swo-44 What graphics card does LPE require? LSP-OP-EN
swo-45 What platform does qvalue run on? LSP-OP-EN
swo-46 Can I install Rgraphviz on a university computer? LSP-OP-EN
swo-47 What compiler do I need to compile source code on Windows platform? LSP-OP-EN
swo-48 Does MATLAB work on 64 bit windows? LSP-OP-EN
swo-49 What is the algorithm used to process XML? LSP-OP-EN
swo-50 What are the alternatives to Weka? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-51 What other alternatives to PostgreSQL are there? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-52 Which of the named and published “algorithms” does Unix use? LSP-OP-EN
swo-53 What type of software is vsn? LSP-INST-SC-EN
swo-54 What software can perform clustering task? LSP-OP-EN
swo-55 Is Ringo appropriate software for data annotation? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-56 What are the primary inputs and outputs of XDE? LSP-OP-EN
swo-57 Which visualisation software is there for TSV and what will it cost? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-58 Which software tool created Matrix? LSP-OP-EN
swo-59 What software can I use RDF data with to support pattern discovery task? LSP-OP-EN
swo-60 What are the input and output formats for Adobe Acrobat Reader? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-61 What software can read a .cel file? LSP-OP-EN
swo-62 What are the export options for AIDA? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-63 What is the valid input for DROID? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-64 Can Eclipse export from its proprietary data format to an open format such as csv, txt? LSP-OP-EN
swo-65 Can Dropbox work with data that are output from vsn? LSP-OP-EN
swo-66 What open source, maintained software can I use to process heat map in binary format? LSP-OP-EN
swo-67 Is the output format of Spotfire proprietary? LSP-INST-SC-EN
swo-68 Where can I get R software? LSP-OP-EN
swo-69 How do I get help with Microsoft Excel? LSP-OP-EN
swo-70 Who developed Mfuzz? LSP-OP-EN
swo-71 What is the homepage of the DAVID? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-72 Which URL can I get UNIX from? LSP-OP-EN
swo-73 How long has Jaguar been around? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-74 How actively developed prada is? LSP-OP-EN
swo-75 Is Weka available as a web service? LSP-INST-SC-EN
swo-76 What is the version of BioJava? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-77 When was the 1.0 version of MUSCLE released? LSP-OP-EN
swo-78 Is MFuzz open source development? Is there a community development? LSP-INST-SC-EN
swo-79 What license Jaguar has, and what is its permissiveness? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
swo-80 Is PSI-BLAST open source or not? LSP-INST-SC-EN
swo-81 Who owns the copyright for SIM? LSP-OP-EN
swo-82 Is Linux FOSS? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-83 Is LPE free or not? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-84 Is there any documentation for ROC and where can I find it? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-85 Where is the documentation of Cytoscape? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-86 Where’s the documentation of CRG TCoffee? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-87 Is there a publication with rama? LSP-OP-DP-EN
swo-88 Is Rosetta Resolver extensible? LSP-DP-EN
swo-89 In what language was Ringo implemented? LSP-OP-EN
swo-90 Do I need a license key to use Ringo? LSP-OP-EN
Ontology name Ontology URI
Ontology for the representation of the National Topographic Base BTN100 https://datos.ign.es/def/btn100/index-es.html
IdentifierCompetency questions / Natural language sentence (fact) Answer Lexico-Syntactic Pattern associated
btn100-1 Which is the height of peak x? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-2 Which are the geometries and maximum levels of the Curvas de Nivel Maestra of bathymetric type? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-3 Which is the name and geometry of the primary interest mountain range? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-4 Which are the rivers of tertiary interest at ground level? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-5 Which are the names and geometry of the major canals at ground level? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-6 Which are the permanent regime lagoons? LSP-CD-EN
btn100-7 Which is the geometry of the wetlands of rambla type? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-8 Which are the names of the seas that surround the Spanish territory? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-9 Which capitals from the population center has a population density higher than x? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-10 Which are the names and geometry of the population center that has a population density higher than x? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-11 What are the name of disseminated places that are not capitals of municipality? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-12 What are the name of  superficial disseminated places that are  capitals of municipality? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-13 Which are the names of the free access motorways? LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
btn100-14 Which are the names of the national highway which belong to the european highway network? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-15 Which are the names of the national highway which do not belong to the european highway network? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-16 Which are the names and geometry of the itinerary which belong to the "Camino de Santiago"? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-17 Which are the FFCC stations that are stopping places and whcih are the FFCC stations that have passenger traffic? LSP-INST-SC-EN and LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
btn100-18 Which are the geometries of the cable transport? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-19 Which are the sea ports that are not under state control? LSP-COMPL-EN
btn100-20 Which are the heliport that are not under state control and do not belong to the trans-European transport network? LSP-COMPL-EN
btn100-21 Which are the oil pipelines at ground level? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-22 Which are the low voltage electric lines? LSP-CD-EN
btn100-23 Which are the nuclear power plants? LSP-CD-EN
btn100-24 Which are the names, altitudes and longitudes of the lower order geodesic vertex ? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-25 Which roads cross a municipality ? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-26 Which are the AVE lines that connect two towns? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-27 which is the optimum way between two population centers? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-28 Which are the towns though which the Camino the santiago passes? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-29 Which are the intial point and the end point of the road x? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-30 Which are the intial point and the end point of the railway x? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-31 Which are the places of interest in a town ? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-32 Which are the historic places in a town? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-33 Which churches are placed in a town? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-34 Which are the monuments of cultural interest in a town? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-35 Which places of interest are in a province? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-36 Which historic places are in a province? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-37 Which goods of cultural interest are in a province? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-38 Which places of interest are in a county? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-39 Which historic places are in a county? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-40 Which goods of cultural interest are in a county? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-41 Which beaches are placed in the province X? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-42 Which gas stations are placed in the municipality x? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-43 Which electrict lines passes through a municipality? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-44 Which municipalities are connected through the electric line x? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-45 Which hospital attend to a particular municipality? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-46 Which communication stations are in a particular municipality? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-47 Which mines are in a particular province? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-48 Which mines are within a particular distance in a particular municipality? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-49 What geodesic vertex are in a particular municipality? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-50 What REDNAP signals are in a municipality? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-51 Which is the altitude of the municipality x? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-52 Which is the altitude of the peak or mountain x? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-53 Which are the NP placed along th river x? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-54 Which are the cave type places of interest which are also good of cultural interest? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-55 Which are the good of cultural interest of the national park x? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-56 Which are the railway stations of the province x? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-57 Which are the airports of the autonomous region? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-58 Through which villages does the road x goes through ? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-59 Which are the National Parks? LSP-CD-EN
btn100-60 Which are the natural places? LSP-CD-EN
btn100-61 Which are the Special bird protection area? LSP-CD-EN
btn100-62 Which river cross the National Park x? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-63 Which municiaplities are located inside the PN LSP-OP-EN
btn100-64 Which roads cross the PN? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-65 How many and which are the surface water located inside thePN x? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-66 Which are the protected areas in Spain? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-67 Which are the tributaries on the right of the river x? LSP-OP-DP-EN
btn100-68 Where does the river X flows into? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-69 How many rivers flow into the sea or ocean zzz? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-70 What are the rivers which belong to municipality x? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-71 Through which autonomous community does the river x flow into ? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-72 Through which provinces does the river x flow into ? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-73 Through which municipalities does the river x flow into? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-74 Which town is adjacent to town X? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-75 Which municipality belongs to province X? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-76 Which municipality belongs to the autonomous community x? LSP-OP-EN
btn100-77 What are the reservoirs of the river x? LSP-OP-DP-EN
Ontology name Ontology URI
SAREF ontology http://ontology.tno.nl/saref/
IdentifierCompetency questions / Natural language sentence (fact)AnswerLexico-Syntactic Pattern associated
saref-1 What is a device? A tangible object designed to accomplish a particular task in households, common public buildings or offices LSP-CD-EN
saref-2 A device performs one or more functions LSP-OP-Min-EN
saref-3 Examples of devices are a light switch, a temperaturesensor, an energy meter, a washing machine LSP-INST-SC-EN
saref-4 A device shall have a model property LSP-OP-Min-EN
saref-5 A device shall have a manufacturer property LSP-OP-Min-EN
saref-6 A device can optionally  have a description LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref-7 A building space definesthe physical spaces of the building where a device is located, such as a kitchen or a living room LSP-OP-EN
saref-8 A building space contains devices or building objects LSP-U-EN
saref-9 Building objectsare objects in the building that can be controlled by devices, such as doors or windows LSP-OP-EN
saref-10 A building object can be opened or closed by an actuator LSP-OP-EN
saref-11 A building space has also a  property that can be used to specify thetype of space, for example, the living room or the bedroom LSP-OP-EN
saref-12 A building space is a geographical point characterized by acertain altitude, latitude and longitude LSP-DP-EN
saref-13 The devices can be classified into categories: FunctionRelated, EneryRelated and BuildingRelated LSP-SC-Di-EC-EN
saref-14 The FunctionRelated category can be specialized into: Actuator, Applicance, HVAC, Lighting, Meter, MicroRenewable, Multimedia, Network, Sensor LSP-SC-Di-EC-EN
saref-15 The EnergyRelated category can be specialized into: Load, Generator and Storage LSP-SC-Di-EC-EN
saref-16 The devices can belong to several categories LSP-OP-EN
saref-17 A device can be used for  the purpose of offering a commodity LSP-OP-EN
saref-18 Water or gas are examples of commodities LSP-INST-SC-EN
saref-19 A device can be used for  the purpose of sensing LSP-OP-EN
saref-20 A device can be used for measuring a property LSP-OP-EN
saref-21 A device can be used for notifying a property LSP-OP-EN
saref-22 Examples of properties are temperature, energy or smoke LSP-INST-SC-EN
saref-23 A device can be used for  the purpose of controlling a building object,such as a door or a window LSP-OP-EN
saref-24 A device may consists of other devices LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN
saref-25 A sensor is a device LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref-26 A sensor performs a sensing function LSP-OP-EN
saref-27 A temperature sensor is a device that has category sensor LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref-28 A temperature sensor consists of a sensor LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN
saref-29 A temperature senso performs the sensing function and is used for the purpose of sensing temperature LSP-OP-EN
saref-30 A washing machine is a device that has category Appliance  and Load LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref-31 A washing machine accomplishes the task ofwashing LSP-OP-EN
saref-32 A washing machine performs an actuating start/pause function LSP-OP-EN
saref-33 A smoke sensor is a device that has category Sensor LSP-OP-EN
saref-34 A smoke sensor is a device that consists of a sensor LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN
saref-35 A smoke sensor performs asensing and event function LSP-OP-EN
saref-36 A smoke sensor  is used for the purpose of sensing smoke LSP-OP-EN
saref-37 A switch is a device that has category Actuator LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref-38 A door switch  has category Actuator, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref-39 A door switch is a device that consists of a switch LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref-40 A door switch  performs theopen/close function LSP-OP-EN
saref-41 A door switch is used for the purpose of controlling doors LSP-OP-EN
saref-42 A dimmer lamp is a device that has category Lighting and Actuator LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref-43 A dimmer lamp performs an actuating level control LSP-OP-EN
saref-44 A dimmer lamp is used for the purpose of controlling the light LSP-OP-EN
saref-45 A meter is a functionRelated device LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref-46 A meter performs a metering function LSP-OP-EN
saref-47 An energy meter is a device that has category Meter LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref-48 An energy meter is a device that consists of a meter LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref-49 An energy meter  is used for the purpose of measuring energy LSP-OP-EN
saref-50 A function represents the functionality necessary toaccomplish the task for which a device is designed LSP-OP-EN
saref-51 Examples of functions are the  the actuating, sensing, metering or event functions LSP-SC-EN
saref-52 An actuating function can be specialized into on/off, open/close, start/stop or level control functions LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref-53 A function can belong to a function category LSP-OP-EN
saref-54 A function shall have at least one commandassociated to it LSP-OP-Min-EN
saref-55 The commands can be: on, off, open, toggle, close, startm pause, step up, step down, set level, get and notify LSP-SC-EN
saref-56 A device can be found in a correponding state LSP-OP-EN
saref-57 A command can act upon a state  to represent that theconsequence of a command can be a change of state of the device. LSP-OP-EN
saref-58 A device offers a service LSP-OP-EN
saref-59 A service is a representation of afunction to a network that makes this function discoverable, registerable and remotely controllable by other devices inthe network LSP-OP-EN
saref-60 A service shall represent at least one function LSP-OP-Min-EN
saref-61 A service is offered by at least one device that wants (a certain set of) its function(s) to be discoverable, registerable andremotely controllable by other devices in the network LSP-OP-Min-EN
saref-62 Multiple devices can offer the same service LSP-OP-EN
saref-63 A service shall specify the device that is offering the service LSP-OP-Min-EN
saref-64 A device can be characterized by a profile. LSP-OP-EN
saref-65 The profile allows to describe the energy or power production and consumption of a certain device. LSP-U-EN
saref-66 The profile production and consumption can be calculated over a time span LSP-OP-EN
saref-67 The profile production and consumption can be associated to some costs LSP-OP-EN
saref-68 The power is characterized by a certain value that is measured in a certain unit of measure LSP-OP-EN
saref-69 The energy is characterized by a certain value that is measured in a certain unit of measure LSP-OP-EN
saref-70 The price is also characterized by a value using currency, which is a type of unit of measure LSP-OP-EN
saref-71 The time can be specified in terms of instants or intervals LSP-U-EN
Ontology name Ontology URI
IdentifierCompetency questions / Natural language sentence (fact)AnswerLexico-Syntactic Pattern associated
saref4env-1 What is a TESS? TESS is a Telescope Encoder and Sky Sensor LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4env-2 Which type of sensor is a TESS? TESS is a photometer LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4env-3 What is a photometer? A photometer, generally, is an instrument that measures light intensity or optical properties of solutions or surfaces LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4env-4 What is the main component of TESS? The main component of TESS is a custom-based electronic board LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-5 Which are the communication interfaces available in TESS? RS232, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-6 Which components of TESS are sensors? The light detector, nIR temperature sensor LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4env-7 Which properties can be measured by a photometer? Illuminance, irradiance, light absorption, scattering of light, reflection of light, fluorescence, phosphorescence, and luminescence LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-8 Each reading in a TESS has a timestamp LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-9 Which are the properties observed by a TESS? Ambient temperature, sky temperature, frequency and magnitude. LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4env-10 Physical objects can contain devices LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-11 A sensor could be a person LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4env-12 Devices might have different versions and revision numbers LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4env-13 Which type(s) of RS232 is supported by TESS? V.24 LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-14 Which type(s) of Bluetooth is supported by TESS? V2.1 LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-15 Which type(s) of WiFi is supported by TESS? 802.11ah LSP-SC-EN
saref4env-16 Which are the components of TESS? Printed circuit board, light detector, infrared thermometer module, remote serial port Wi-Fi transceiver module, power supply, light collector, nIR filter, clear glass window, enclosure box LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4env-17 Which hardware elements is a TESS connected to? To a Wi-Fi router LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-18 Which is the communication protocol used by TESS? MQTT Broker (RabbitMQ + MQTT Adapter) LSP-OP-Min-EN
saref4env-19 What is the transmission period of the TESS? 5 minutes (configurable) LSP-SC-EN
saref4env-20 A device is located in a given geographical point defined by a latitude and a longitude LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-21 A device position is defined using the azimuth and altitude horizontal coordinates LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-22 A sensing device takes measures following a frequency LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-23 A device can be actionable or not LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-24 A device is part of a system LSP-OP-Min-EN
saref4env-25 An actuator is a type of device LSP-OP-Min-EN
saref4env-26 A device has energy consumption LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-27 A lamppost uses a given light generation method LSP-OP-Min-EN
saref4env-28 A lamppost has energy consumption LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-29 A lamppost might have a light shield LSP-U-EN
saref4env-30 What is a lamppost? A lamppost is a physical object that lights an outdoor area. LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-31 A light has a geometry LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-32 A light is projected in a given direction LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-33 A light is projected in a given angle LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-34 A light is projected from a given height LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-35 A light has a colour LSP-U-EN
saref4env-36 A light can have flash LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4env-37 What can be considered as physical objects? An Arduino board, a garage door, a bottle of soda, a building, a TV, etc. LSP-CD-EN
saref4env-38 A digital representation of an object has a name LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4env-39 A digital representation of an object has a description LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4env-40 A physical object has a description LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4env-41 A digital representation of an object has a unique identifier LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4env-42 A digital representation of an object can have zero or more tags LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4env-43 A digital representation of an object has exactly one creation date LSP-OP-Exact-EN
saref4env-44 A digital representation of an object includes the date in which some characteristic of object was last modified (e.g., its geolocation) LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-45 A sensing device produces a log of property observations LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-46 A log indicates which is its last value LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-47 Values in a log are related to the time in which they were observed LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-48 A physical representation of an object includes an observation log for each property to be observed LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-49 An observation value is measured in a given unit LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-50 What is a service? A service is a software system to support interaction over a network LSP-CD-EN
saref4env-51 Physical objects can have digital representations that are accessible through services LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-52 A service can expose either none or multiple digital representations of an object LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-53 A digital representation of an object is exposed at maximum by one service LSP-OP-Max-EN
saref4env-54 A digital representation of an object performs actions LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-55 An action manages an actuator LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-56 An action of a digital representation of an object can keep an action log LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-57 A property of a digital representation of an object can keep an observation log LSP-OP-EN
saref4env-58 A digital representation of an object encapsulates a system LSP-OP-EN
Ontology name Ontology URI
SAREF4EBLDG ontology https://w3id.org/def/saref4bldg
IdentifierCompetency questions / Natural language sentence (fact)AnswerLexico-Syntactic Pattern associated
saref4bldg-1 What is a building? A building represents a structure that provides shelter for its occupants or contents and stands in one place. The building is also used to provide a basic element within the spatial structure subClassOf for the components of a building project (together with site, storey, and space). LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-2 A building can contain devices LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN
saref4bldg-3 What is a shading device? Shading devices are purpose built devices to protect from the sunlight, from natural light, or screening them from view. Shading devices can form part of the facade or can be mounted inside the building, they can be fixed or operable. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-4 Which properties has a shading device? Shading device type, whether the element is external, whether the element is operated mechanically, thermal transmittance, solar transmittance, visible light transmittance, solar reflectance, visible light reflectance, and roughness. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-5 What is an actuator? An actuator is a mechanical device for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. An actuator takes energy, usually created by air, electricity, or liquid, and converts that into some kind of motion. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-6 What is an alarm? An alarm is a device that signals the existence of a condition or situation that is outside the boundaries of normal expectation or that activates such a device. Alarms include the provision of break glass buttons and manual pull boxes that are used to activate alarms. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-7 What is a controller? A controller is a device that monitors inputs and controls outputs within a building automation system. A controller may be physical (having placement within a spatial structure) or logical (a software interface or aggregated within a programmable physical controller). LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-8 What is a flow instrument? A flow instrument reads and displays the value of a particular property of a system at a point, or displays the difference in the value of a property between two points. Instrumentation is typically for the purpose of determining the value of the property at a point in time. It is not the purpose of an instrument to record or integrate the values over time (although they may be connected to recording devices that do perform such a function). This entity provides for all forms of mechanical flow instrument (thermometers, pressure gauges etc.) and electrical flow instruments (ammeters, voltmeters etc.) LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-9 What is a sensor? A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-10 What is a unitary control element? A unitary control element combines a number of control components into a single product, such as a thermostat or humidistat. A unitary control element provides a housing for an aggregation of control or electrical distribution elements that, in combination, perform a singular (unitary) purpose. Each item in the aggregation may have its own geometric representation and location. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-11 Which properties has an actuator? Fail position and manual override. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-12 What is a protective device tripping unit? A protective device tripping unit breaks an electrical circuit at a separate breaking unit when a stated electric current that passes through the unit is exceeded. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-13 What is an audio visual appliance? An audio-visual appliance is a device that displays, captures, transmits, or receives audio or video. Audio-visual appliances may be fixed in place or may be able to be moved from one space to another. They may require an electrical supply that may be supplied either by an electrical circuit or provided from a local battery source. Audio-visual appliances may be connected to data circuits including specialist circuits for audio visual purposes only. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-14 What is a communication appliance? A communications appliance transmits and receives electronic or digital information as data or sound. Communication appliances may be fixed in place or may be able to be moved from one space to another. Communication appliances require an electrical supply that may be supplied either by an electrical circuit or provided from a local battery source. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-15 What is an electric appliance? An electric appliance is a device intended for consumer usage that is powered by electricity. Electric appliances may be fixed in place or may be able to be moved from one space to another. Electric appliances require an electrical supply that may be supplied either by an electrical circuit or provided from a local battery source. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-16 What is an electric flow storage device? An electric flow storage device is a device in which electrical energy is stored and from which energy may be progressively released. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-17 What is an electric generator? An electric generator is an engine that is a machine for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-18 What is an electric motor? An electric motor is an engine that is a machine for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-19 What is an electric time control? An electric time control is a device that applies control to the provision or flow of electrical energy over time. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-20 What is a lamp? A lamp is an artificial light source such as a light bulb or tube. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-21 What is an outlet? An outlet is a device installed at a point to receive one or more inserted plugs for electrical power or communications. Power outlets are commonly connected within a junction box; data outlets may be directly connected to a wall. For power outlets sharing the same circuit within a junction box, the ports should indicate the logical wiring relationship to the enclosing junction box, even though they may be physically connected to a cable going to another outlet, switch, or fixture. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-22 What is a protective device? A protective device breaks an electrical circuit when a stated electric current that passes through it is exceeded. A protective device provides protection against electrical current only (not as a general protective device). It may be used to represent the complete set of elements including both the tripping unit and the breaking unit that provide the protection. This may be particularly useful at earlier stages of design where the approach to breaking the electrical supply may be determined but the method of tripping may not. Alternatively, this entity may be used to specifically represent the breaking unit alone (in which case the tripping unit will also be specifically identified). This entity is specific to dedicated protective devices and excludes electrical outlets that may have circuit protection. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-23 What is a solar device? A solar device converts solar radiation into other energy such as electric current or thermal energy. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-24 What is a switching device? A switch is used in a cable distribution system (electrical circuit) to control or modulate the flow of electricity. Switches include those used for electrical power, communications, audio-visual, or other distribution system types as determined by the available ports. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-25 What is a transformer? A transformer is an inductive stationary device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another. A transformer is used to transform electric power; conversion of electric signals for other purposes is handled at other entities: a controller converts arbitrary signals, an audio visual appliance converts signals for audio or video streams, and a communications appliance converts signals for data or other communications usage. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-26 Which properties has a protective device tripping unit? Standard and limiting terminal size. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-27 Which properties has an audio visual appliance? Media source and audio volume. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-28 Which properties has an electric flow storage device? Nominal supply voltage, nominal supply voltage offset, and nominal frequency. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-29 Which properties has an electric generator? Electric generator efficiency, start current factor, and maximum power output. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-30 Which properties has an electric motor? Maximum power output, electric motor efficiency, start current factor, starting time, TE time, locked rotor current, motor enclosure type, frame size, whether the motor enclosure is guarded, and whether the motor has part winding. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-31 Which properties has a lamp? Contributed luminous flux, light emitter nominal power, lamp maintenance factor, lamp ballast type, lamp compensation type, colour appearance, spectrum, colour temperature, and colour rendering index. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-32 Which properties has an outlet? Whether the outlet accepts a loose plug connection and the number of sockets. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-33 Which properties has a switching device? Number of gangs, switch function, whether it has a key operated lock, whether there is an illuminated indicator to show that the switch is on, legend, and set point. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-34 Which properties has a transformer? Primary voltage, secondary voltage, primary current, secondary current, primary frequency, secondary frequency, primary apparent power, secondary apparent power, maximum apparent power, secondary current type, short circuit voltage, real impedance ratio, imaginary impedance ratio, transformer vector group, whether the neutral point of the primary winding is available as a terminal, and whether the neutral point of the secondary winding is available as a terminal. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-35 What is an air to air heat recovery? An air-to-air heat recovery device employs a counter-flow heat exchanger between inbound and outbound air flow. It is typically used to transfer heat from warmer air in one chamber to cooler air in the second chamber (i.e., typically used to recover heat from the conditioned air being exhausted and the outside air being supplied to a building), resulting in energy savings from reduced heating (or cooling) requirements. LSP-OP-DP-EN
saref4bldg-36 What is a burner? A burner is a device that converts fuel into heat through combustion. It includes gas, oil, and wood burners. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-37 What is a chiller? A chiller is a device used to remove heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycle to cool a fluid, typically water or a mixture of water and glycol. The chilled fluid is then used to cool and dehumidify air in a building. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-38 What is a boiler? A boiler is a closed, pressure-rated vessel in which water or other fluid is heated using an energy source such as natural gas, heating oil, or electricity. The fluid in the vessel is then circulated out of the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications. A boiler is a vessel solely used for heating of water or other fluids. Storage vessels, such as for drinking water storage are considered as tanks. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-39 What is a coil? A coil is a device used to provide heat transfer between non-mixing media. A common example is a cooling coil, which utilizes a finned coil in which circulates chilled water, antifreeze, or refrigerant that is used to remove heat from air moving across the surface of the coil. A coil may be used either for heating or cooling purposes by placing a series of tubes (the coil) carrying a heating or cooling fluid into an airstream. The coil may be constructed from tubes bundled in a serpentine form or from finned tubes that give an extended heat transfer surface. Coils may also be used for non-airflow cases such as embedded in a floor slab. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-40 What is a compressor? A compressor is a device that compresses a fluid typically used in a refrigeration circuit. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-41 What is a condenser? A condenser is a device that is used to dissipate heat, typically by condensing a substance such as a refrigerant from its gaseous to its liquid state. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-42 What is a cooled beam? A cooled beam (or chilled beam) is a device typically used to cool air by circulating a fluid such as chilled water through exposed finned tubes above a space. Typically mounted overhead near or within a ceiling, the cooled beam uses convection to cool the space below it by acting as a heat sink for the naturally rising warm air of the space. Once cooled, the air naturally drops back to the floor where the cycle begins again. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-43 What is a cooling tower? A cooling tower is a device which rejects heat to ambient air by circulating a fluid such as water through it to reduce its temperature by partial evaporation. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-44 What is a damper? A damper typically participates in an HVAC duct distribution system and is used to control or modulate the flow of air. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-45 What is a duct silencer? A duct silencer is a device that is typically installed inside a duct distribution system for the purpose of reducing the noise levels from air movement, fan noise, etc. in the adjacent space or downstream of the duct silencer device. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-46 What is an engine? An engine is a device that converts fuel into mechanical energy through combustion. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-47 What is an evaporative cooler? An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air by saturating it with water vapour. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-48 What is an evaporator? An evaporator is a device in which a liquid refrigerant is vaporized and absorbs heat from the surrounding fluid. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-49 What is a fan? A fan is a device which imparts mechanical work on a gas. A typical usage of a fan is to induce airflow in a building services air distribution system. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-50 What is a filter? A filter is an apparatus used to remove particulate or gaseous matter from fluids and gases. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-51 What is a flow meter? A flow meter is a device that is used to measure the flow rate in a system. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-52 What is a heat exchanger? A heat exchanger is a device used to provide heat transfer between non-mixing media such as plate and shell and tube heat exchangers. A heat exchanger is commonly used on water-side distribution systems to recover energy from a liquid to another liquid (typically water-based), whereas an air-to-air heat recovery is commonly used on air-side distribution systems to recover energy from a gas to a gas (usually air). LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-53 What is a humidifier? A humidifier is a device that adds moisture into the air. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-54 What is a medical device? A medical device is attached to a medical piping system and operates upon medical gases to perform a specific function. Medical gases include medical air, medical vacuum, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-55 What is a pump? A pump is a device which imparts mechanical work on fluids or slurries to move them through a channel or pipeline. A typical use of a pump is to circulate chilled water or heating hot water in a building services distribution system. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-56 What is a space heater? Space heaters utilize a combination of radiation and/or natural convection using a heating source such as electricity, steam or hot water to heat a limited space or area. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-57 What is a tank? A tank is a vessel or container in which a fluid or gas is stored for later use. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-58 What is a tube bundle? A tube bundle is a device consisting of tubes and bundles of tubes used for heat transfer and contained typically within other energy conversion devices, such as a chiller or coil. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-59 What is a unitary equipment? Unitary equipment typically combine a number of components into a single product, such as air handlers, pre-packaged rooftop air-conditioning units, heat pumps, and split systems. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-60 What is a valve? A valve is used in a building services piping distribution system to control or modulate the flow of the fluid. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-61 What is a vibration isolator? A vibration isolator is a device used to minimize the effects of vibration transmissibility in a building. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-62 Which properties has an air to air heat recovery? Heat transfer type, whether it has defrost function or not, operational temperature range, primary air flow rate range, and secondary air flow rate range. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-63 Which properties has a burner? Energy source. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-64 Which properties has a chiller? Nominal capacity, nominal efficiency, nominal condensing temperature, nominal evaporating temperature, nominal heat rejection rate, nominal power consumption. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-65 Which properties has a boiler? Pressure rating, operating mode, heat transfer surface area, nominal part load ratio, water inlet temperature range, water storage capacity, whether it is a water storage heater, outlet temperature range, nominal energy consumption, and energy source. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-66 Which properties has a coil? Operational temperature range, air flow rate range, nominal sensible capacity, nominal latent capacity, nominal UA, and placement type. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-67 Which properties has a compressor? Power source, refrigerant class, minimum part load ratio, maximum part load ratio, compressor speed, nominal capacity, ideal capacity, ideal shaft power, whether it has hot gas bypass, and impeller diameter. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-68 Which properties has a condenser? Refrigerant class, external surface area, internal surface area, internal refrigerant volume, internal water volume, nominal heat transfer area, nominal heat transfer coefficient. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-69 Which properties has a cooled beam? Whether it is free hanging, water flow control system type, water pressure range, nominal cooling capacity, nominal surrounding temperature cooling, nominal surrounding humidity cooling, nominal supply water temperature cooling, nominal return water temperature cooling, nominal water flow cooling, nominal heating capacity, nominal surrounding temperature heating, nominal supply water temperature heating, nominal return water temperature heating, nominal water flow heating, integrated lighting type, pipe connection, finish colour, coil length, and coil width. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-70 Which properties has a cooling tower? Nominal capacity, circuit type, flow arrangement, spray type, capacity control, control strategy, number of cells, basin reserve volume, lift elevation difference, water requirement, operation temperature range, ambient design dry bulb temperature, ambient design wet bulb temperature. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-71 Which properties has a damper? Operation, orientation, blade thickness, blade action, blade shape, blade edge, number of blades, face area, maximum air flow rate, temperature range, maximum working pressure, temperature rating, nominal air flow rate, open pressure drop, leakage fully closed, frame type, frame depth, frame thickness, and close off rating. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-72 Which properties has a duct silencer? Hydraulic diameter, length, weight, air flow rate range, working pressure range, temperature range, and has exterior insulation. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-73 Which properties has an engine? Energy source. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-74 Which properties has an evaporative cooler? Flow arrangement, heat exchange area, operational temperature range, and water requirement. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-75 Which properties has an evaporator? Evaporation medium type, evaporation coolant, refrigerant class, external surface area, internal surface area, internal refrigerant volume, internal water volume, nominal heat transfer area, and nominal heat transfer coefficient. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-76 Which properties has a fan? Motor drive type, capacity control type, operation temperature range, nominal air flow rate, nominal total pressure, nominal static pressure, nominal rotation speed, nominal power rate, operational riterial. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-77 Which properties has a filter? Weight, initial resistance, final resistance, operation temperature range, flow rate range, nominal filter face velocity, nominal media surface velocity, nominal pressure drop, nominal flow rate, nominal particle geometric mean diameter, and nominal particle geometric standard deviation. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-78 Which properties has a flow meter? Read out type and remote reading. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-79 Which properties has a heat exchanger? Arrangement. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-80 Which properties has a humidifier? Application, weight, nominal moisture gain, nominal air flow rate, internal control, and water requirement. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-81 Which properties has a pump? Flow rate range, flow resistance range, connection size, temperature range, net positive suction head, and nominal rotation speed. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-82 Which properties has a space heater? Placement type, temperature classification, heat transfer dimension, heat transfer medium, energy source, body mass, thermal mass heat capacity, output capacity, thermal efficiency, number of panels, number of sections. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-83 Which properties has a tank? Access type, storage type, nominal length or diameter, nominal width or diameter, nominal depth, nominal capacity, effective capacity, operating weight, pattern type, end shape type, first curvature radius, second curvature radius, number of sections. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-84 Which properties has a tube bundle? Number of rows, staggered row spacing, in line row spacing, number of circuits, fouling factor, thermal conductivity, length, volume, nominal diameter, outside diameter, inside diameter, horizontal spacing, vertical spacing, has turbulator. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-85 Which properties has a valve? Valve pattern, valve operation, valve mechanism, size, test pressure, working pressure, flow coefficient, and close off rating. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-86 Which properties has a vibration isolator? Vibration transmissibility, isolator static deflection, isolator compressibility, height, and maximum supported weight. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-87 What is a fire suppression terminal? A fire suppression terminal has the purpose of delivering a fluid (gas or liquid) that will suppress a fire. A fire suppression terminal provides for all forms of sprinkler, spreader and other form of terminal that is connected to a pipework system and intended to act in the role of suppressing a fire. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-88 What is an interceptor? An interceptor is a device designed and installed in order to separate and retain deleterious, hazardous or undesirable matter while permitting normal sewage or liquids to discharge into a collection system by gravity. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-89 What is a sanitary terminal? A sanitary terminal is a fixed appliance or terminal usually supplied with water and used for drinking, cleaning or foul water disposal or that is an item of equipment directly used with such an appliance or terminal. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-90 Which properties has an interceptor? Nominal body length, nominal body width, nominal body depth, inlet connection size, outlet connection size, cover length, cover width, ventilating pipe size. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
saref4bldg-91 What is an energy conversion device? The distribution flow element energy conversion device defines the occurrence of a device used to perform energy conversion or heat transfer and typically participates in a flow distribution system. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-92 What is a flow controller? The distribution flow element flow controller defines the occurrence of elements of a distribution system that are used to regulate flow through a distribution system. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-93 What is a flow moving device? The distribution flow element flow moving device defines the occurrence of an apparatus used to distribute, circulate or perform conveyance of fluids, including liquids and gases (such as a pump or fan), and typically participates in a flow distribution system. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-94 What is a flow storage device? The distribution flow element flow storage device defines the occurrence of a device that participates in a distribution system and is used for temporary storage (such as a tank). LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-95 What is a flow terminal? The distribution flow element flow terminal defines the occurrence of a permanently attached element that acts as a terminus or beginning of a distribution system (such as an air outlet, drain, water closet, or sink). A terminal is typically a point at which a system interfaces with an external environment. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-96 What is a flow treatment device? The distribution flow element flow treatment device defines the occurrence of a device typically used to remove unwanted matter from a fluid, either liquid or gas, and typically participates in a flow distribution system. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-OP-EN
saref4bldg-97 What is a transport element? A transport element is a generalization of all transport related objects that move people, animals or goods within a building or building complex. LSP-CD-EN, LSP-DC-SC-EN
saref4bldg-98 Which properties has a transport element? Capacity people, capacity weight, and fire exit. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
Ontology name Ontology URI
OneM2M ontology https://git.onem2m.org/MAS/BaseOntology/blob/3_6_0/base_ontology.owl
IdentifierCompetency questions / Natural language sentence (fact)AnswerLexico-Syntactic Pattern associated
onem2m-1 A thing is an entity that can be identified in the oneM2M System. LSP-DC-SC-EN
onem2m-2 A thing may have properties LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
onem2m-3 A thing can have relations to other things LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
onem2m-4 An aspect could be a (physical or non-physical) entity or it could be a quality LSP-U-EN
onem2m-5 An aspect can have metadata LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
onem2m-6 Metadata contain data (like units, precision-ranges …) about a variable or about an aspect LSP-U-EN
onem2m-7 A device is a thing that is able to interact electronically with its environment via a network LSP-CD-EN
onem2m-8 A device may be a physical or non-physical entity LSP-U-EN
onem2m-9 A device performs one or more functionalities in order to accomplish a particular task LSP-Min-and-OP-EN
onem2m-10 A device has one or more services that expose in the network its functionalities LSP-Min-and-OP-EN
onem2m-11 A device can be composed of several (sub-)devices LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN
onem2m-12 An interworked device is a device that does not support oneM2M interfaces and can only be accessed from the oneM2M System by communicating with a "proxied" (virtual) device that has been created by an interworking proxy entity LSP-CD-EN
onem2m-13 An interworked device is part of an area network LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN
onem2m-14 An area network is a network that provides data transport services between an interworked device and the oneM2M System LSP-DC-SC-EN
onem2m-15 An area network follows an standard that defines its physical properties LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-16 An area network follows a communication protocol LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-17 An area network follows a profile LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-18 A service is an electronic representation of a functionality in a network LSP-DC-SC-EN
onem2m-19 A service can expose one or more functionalities LSP-OP-Min-EN
onem2m-20 A service can be composed of independent (sub-)services LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-21 A service has an operation LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-22 A service has an input data point LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-23 A service has an output data point LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-24 A functionality represents the functionality necessary to accomplish the task for which a device is designed LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-25 A functionality refers to (e.g. observes or influences) some real-world aspect(s) LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-26 A functionality has commands that allow human users to influence/observe such functionality LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-27 A controlling functionality represents a functionality that has impacts on the real world, but does not gather data LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-28 A measuring functionality represents a functionality that has no impacts on the real world, but only gathers data LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-29 An operation is the means of a service to communicate in a procedure-type manner over the network (i.e. transmit data to/from other devices) LSP-SC-EN
onem2m-30 An operation is the -machine interpretable- exposure of a -human understandable- command to a network LSP-SC-EN
onem2m-31 An operation may receive input data from input data points (persistent entities) LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-32 An operation may receive data from operation inputs (transient entities that are deleted when the operation finishes) LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-33 An operation may produce output data into output data points (persistent entities) LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-34 An operation may produce data into operation outputs (transient entities that are deleted when the operation finishes) LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-35 An operation has an operation state that allows a oneM2M entity to get informed on the progress of that operation LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-36 An operation has a method LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
onem2m-37 An operation has a target URI LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
onem2m-38 A command represents an action that can be performed to support a functionality LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-39 A command has as input one or more operation inputs LSP-OP-Min-EN
onem2m-40 A command has as output one or more operation outputs LSP-OP-Min-EN
onem2m-41 An operation input describes an input of an operation and also describes the input of a command LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-42 An operation output describes an output of an operation and also describes the output of a command LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-43 An operation state describes the current state of an operation LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-44 An operation state is a simple type variable LSP-CD-EN
onem2m-45 An operation state has exactly one data restriction pattern LSP-OP-Exact-EN
onem2m-46 An input data point is a variable of a service that is accessed by a RESTful device in its environment and that the device reads out autonomously (e.g. at periodic times) LSP-DC-SC-EN
onem2m-47 An output data point is a variable of a service that is set by a RESTful device in its environment and that the device updates autonomously (e.g. at periodic times) LSP-DC-SC-EN
onem2m-48 A variable describes an entity that stores some data (e.g. integers, text, etc., or structured data) that can change over time LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-49 A variable describes a real-world aspect LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-50 A variable can have metadata LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
onem2m-51 A variable can be structured using other variables LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-52 A variable may have a value (useful for values that are relatively static) LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
onem2m-53 A variable has a CRUD method through which the instantiation of the variable value can be manipulated LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
onem2m-54 A variable has a URI of a resource through which the instantiation of the value of the variable can be manipulated LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
onem2m-55 A simple type variable is a variable that only consists of variables of simple XML types like xsd:integer, xsd:string, etc., potentially including restrictions LSP-DC-SC-EN
onem2m-56 A simple type variable contains the name of the attribute of the resource that is referenced with the target URI and that stores the value of the simple type variable LSP-OP-EN
onem2m-57 A simple type variable has exactly one datatype LSP-OP-Exact-EN
onem2m-58 A simple type variable has a data restriction LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
Ontology name Ontology URI
ODRL ontology https://www.w3.org/TR/odrl-model/
IdentifierCompetency questions / Natural language sentence (fact)AnswerLexico-Syntactic Pattern associated
odrl-1 A single option for applying a constraint to a party (of a specific role) should be defined. LSP-OP-Exact-EN
odrl-2 It should be possible to define the target of a constraint inside a Permission, Prohibition or Duty: e.g. a constraint of human age applies to the Assignee, a constraint of play time applies to Assets (of type audio or video), etc. LSP-OP-EN
odrl-3 The current data model assumes a policy instance includes all required data explicitly. This should be extended to policy instances which include explicit data and variables for values which are defined by parameters provided by an access to this template. LSP-OP-EN
odrl-4 In addition to the existing identifiers of a policy means for expressing a version of this policy should specified. LSP-OP-DP-EN
odrl-5 It should be possible to define the price for duty/duties of payment for all permissions of a policy in a global way - while currently the payment duty must be defined for each permission individually. LSP-OP-DP-EN
odrl-6 Extend the temporal constraints by setting a time reference, any period in the rightOperand refers to this point in time. LSP-OP-EN
odrl-7 For a relativeTimePeriod constraint the rightOperand has to provide a time period as value. LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
odrl-8 Being able to tie Permission, Prohibition, Duty, and Constraint entities together with an AND, OR or XOR relationship LSP-OP-EN
odrl-9 Being able to assign multiple individuals of type Party to a Group for which permissions/prohibitions/duties can be specified. LSP-OP-EN
odrl-10 Ability to link from a Policy or a Permission to the original (text-based) license. LSP-OP-EN
odrl-11 It should be possible to define policies of type Assertion. LSP-CD-EN
odrl-12 An Assertion policy does not grant any permissions/prohibitions, but reflects policy terms that a party believes to have. LSP-OP-EN
Ontology name Ontology URI
Building Top Ontology https://w3c-lbd-cg.github.io/bot/
IdentifierCompetency questions / Natural language sentence (fact)AnswerLexico-Syntactic Pattern associated
bto-1 Zones are areas with spatial 3D volumes LSP-DC-SC-EN
bto-2 Construction sites are areas with spatial 3D volumes LSP-DC-SC-EN
bto-3 Buildings are areas with spatial 3D volumes LSP-DC-SC-EN
bto-4 Storeys are areas with spatial 3D volumes LSP-DC-SC-EN
bto-5 Spaces are limited three-dimensional extent defined physically or notionally, and are areas with spatial 3D volumes LSP-CD-EN + LSP-DC-SC-EN
bto-6 Zones may contain other zones LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN
bto-7 Construction sites may contain buildings LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN
bto-8 Buildings may contain storeys LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN
bto-9 Storeys may contain spaces LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN
bto-10 Spaces may be contained in storeys, buildings, and construction sites LSP-PW-CONS-COM-CE-EN
bto-11 Spaces may intersect different storeys, buildings, and construction sites LSP-OP-EN
bto-12 A zone can be adjacent to another zone LSP-OP-EN
bto-13 There are building elements LSP-CD-EN
bto-14 Building elements may have sub elements LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
bto-15 Zones may have elements, either contained in it, or adjacent to it LSP-OP-DP-PW-EN
bto-16 A zone and an adjacent zone share an interface LSP-OP-EN
bto-17 A zone and an adjacent element share an interface LSP-OP-EN
bto-18 An element and an adjacent element share an interface LSP-OP-EN

Example of use

A user needs to annotate a requirement with an appropriate LSP. The requirement is a competency question that states There are different types of devices: sensor and actuator. To achieve this goal, the user has to manually look for the LSP in the corpus that best matches with such requirement. After this analysis, the user obtains that the requirement can be represented with the BNF formalization There are QUAN CN-CATV NP<superclass> PARA [(NP<subclass>,)* and] NP<subclass> , which is the formalization associate to the LSP with identifier LSP-SC-EN. Therefore, such requirement is annotated with the LSP with the identifier LSP-SC-EN, which has the following characteristics:

  • Identifier: LSP-SC-EN.
  • BNF formalization: There are QUAN CN-CATV NP<superclass> PARA [(NP<subclass>,)* and] NP<subclass>.
  • Description: The definition of a subsumption relation in an ontology.
  • Identifier of the associated ODP: LP-SC-01, which represent the ODP related to subclassOf relations.
  • Example: There are several kinds of memory: fast, expensive, short term memory and long-term memory.
  • OWL constructs: subclassOf, Class (Thing, Nothing).
  • DL Expressivity: AL.

From this annotation it can also be deduced that the annotated requirement should be implemented following the ODP with identifier LSP-SC-EN, which represent the ODP related to subclassOf relations. This ODP indicates that the two classes involved in the requirement need to be defined in the ontology together with the relation subclassOf between them.

References

The following list references the sources from where the ontological requirements were extracted.